Social Psychology, Week 5 lecture notes
Social Psychology, Week 5 lecture notes Psyc 3580
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Ivy Notetaker on Monday September 19, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Psyc 3580 at Auburn University taught by Dr. Gitter in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 7 views. For similar materials see Social Psychology in Psychology at Auburn University.
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Date Created: 09/19/16
Social Psychology Dr. Gitter Week 5 Lecture Notes Social Cognition Process by which people think about and make sense of other people, themselves, and social situations This class: Heuristic cognitive processes Next class: Attribution theory The Cognitive Miser (miser=someone very stingy) General reluctance to do much more thought than we need to o Goal/Standard selfcontrol o No goal standards automatic cognitive processes Heuristics Schemas Scripts Goals of Social Cognition: 1. Conserve mental effort would rather make easy, quick decisions 2. Accuracy we don’t want to make decisions that end with a bad outcome 3. Manage the selfimage making the self look good Problem best outcomes are made by tough decision *Accuracy is sacrificed in favor of the other two. How do people think quickly? Mind works like a computer o Habitual experience leads to contingency between Stimuli and Action. Ex. reading, walking, smoking Knowledge structures organized packet of information o Schemas/prototypes knowledge structures for things and concepts What comes to mind when I say the word Professor? College, profession, lectures, test, class, Dr. Gitter o Scripts knowledge structures for events What happens when you go to dinner? What happens at a wedding? How do two people end up dating? Heuristics thinking about decisions Rules of thumb that simplify judgements o Mental shortcuts Attend class= get better grades Smiling people= wants to be our friends People in uniform= going to help you Cautionary note: o Heuristics are very helpful. Fast and efficient Usually lead to the correct outcome Allow us to conserve mental effort o Can sometimes cause problems Get ahead of themselves Goal of managing the selfimage can get in the way of accuracy. o We’ll look mostly at the problem. Shows how much we rely on them. Availability/accessibility Judging the likelihood of something based on the ease with which it comes to mind o Ex. What issthe capital of: (2 groups) 1 group asked: FL, GA, AL, and WI 2 group asked: Ghana, Lithuania, Slovenia, and Burma Asked them: how good do you think you are at geography? nd 2 group not as confident in geography skills Changed their self judgement Availability heuristic Schwartz (1991) o List reasons you like your favorite restaurant 6 positive attributes 12 positive attributes o Rate how much you like that restaurant 6 group rated it more favorably because it’s easier to list 6 positive attributes than 12 Relevance to elections: o What happens in the few weeks preceding the election is most influential. o “October surprise” greatest influence on voters; candidates worry about this Spotlight effect our own personal actions are especially noticeable to us o And therefore, we think they are noticeable to others Experiment: Participants come in for informal “gettoknowyou” discussion o One student asked to wear embarrassing shirt Predict the number of people who would remember the shirt The participant himself, other people in the group, and 2 control conditions (those who knew about the shirt and those who didn’t) Participant predicted 50%, actual number that noticed 25% Uninformed control 1= 25%, informed control 2= 25% Egocentric bias awareness of your own behavior compared to others (Ross and Sicoly) o What percent of housework do you do? Men say 50%, women say 75% No couples surveyed equaled 100%, always more Distinctiveness o It’s not just what we are exposed to more… o More salient experiences remembered better (attentiongrabbing) I always forget my umbrella when it rains always forget umbrella, just notice that you forgot it on days it rains Illusory correlations two distinct events more likely to be seen as associated o Minority groups and negative behaviors= stereotypes and prejudices Minority groups stand out because we aren’t with them as much When is it useful? o When that particular thought is reasonable. Being concerned about how you lookjob interview o When it aids in learning If you forget your umbrella on a rainy day, you’ll probably check the forecast the next day.
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