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Humanities II Chapter 18

by: Katie Clark

Humanities II Chapter 18 11954

Marketplace > Tulsa Community College > HUMN > 11954 > Humanities II Chapter 18
Katie Clark

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These notes cover all of chapter 18. It is informative, covers all of the material, and easily a study guide.
Humanities II
Shirley K. Elliott & Alexa K. Larson-Thorisch
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Katie Clark on Tuesday September 20, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to 11954 at Tulsa Community College taught by Shirley K. Elliott & Alexa K. Larson-Thorisch in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 11 views. For similar materials see Humanities II in HUMN at Tulsa Community College.


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Date Created: 09/20/16
Chapter 18: Revolution, Reaction, and  The factory system was to increase the Cultural Response (1760-1830): growth and speed of production.  As the expansion of factories increased,  During these years, 3 revolutions took the amount of workers increased resulting place; the Industrial Revolution, the in uncomfortable circumstances, and American Revolution, and the French neglecting human essentials. Revolution.  Also the increase of social gaps, social  Industrial Revolution: created the factory behavior, and social order began. system- replaced agriculture as a societal basis. Classical Economics: The Rationale for  American Revolution: showed that in Industrialization: government by people can work and have  The French Physiocrats and the Scotsman an alternative to kingship. Adam Smith wanted to abolish  French Revolution: got rid of monarchies mercantilism (the economy depending on and reestablished political power in Europe the state), and replace it with laissez faire  Royal, aristocrats, wealthy landowners, system “hands off”, meaning the and the Roman Catholic Church tried to government can’t touch (the economy prevent the spread of changing political depending of individual entrepreneur). ideas.  In England, Smith’s ideas constructed a  Those who benefitted most during these group called the classical economists, times were the middle class, “bourgeoisie”, which led to a free-market system based on who wanted to be the new change in private property that regularly regulated culture, by first having neoclassicism, and prices and profits to benefit all. then romanticism.  Like Smith, writings of Thomas Malthus  Because of Simon Chenard, a Parisian (1766-1834) and David Ricardo (1772- actor, changed the dominant apparel style 1823) contributed to the changes in the of all classes by wearing a short jacket, Industrial Revolution. long trousers (sans- culottes “without  Malthus predicted that if the population breeches”), and wooden shoes. began to grow, the people would exceed the amount of food leading to economic THE INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION: disasters such as the plague, famine, and  As the population grew, opportunities of potentially wars. labor and consumer markets rose =  Ricardo thought that as the social gap economic growth. grew, the middle class would be stuck in  The industrialization required 3 changes: that social order with no way to improve the substitution of machines for manual their lifestyle. labor, replacement of animal and human power with new sources such as water and POLITICAL REVOLUTIONS, 1760- steam, and the introduction of new and 1815: large amounts of raw materials such as  Through this time period, Europe began to iron ore and coal. see the fall of monarchies with events such  The growth of cotton was threatening to as the Treaty of Paris in 1763, and the local woolen makers, so these woolen Battle of Waterloo in 1815. By 1830, locals asked Parliament to prohibit Europe was divided amongst the east importation of cotton from India. (conservative), and the west (progressive). @Katie_Clark THE AMERICAN  The NCA ^ constructed to end royal REVOLUTION: despotism and to turn France into a The process of breaking away from limited, constitutional kingdom. Great Britain, with protests and violence in getting rid of taxes, began in 1774 when THE TWO PHASES OF THE colonists gathered in Philadelphia. These FRENCH REVOLUTION: colonists created the Continental Congress o Phase One: lasted from 1789 to 1792. It to rid the American people from the hold consisted of the people learning that their of “foreign power” of Great Britain. king, Louis XVI, was untrustworthy, the o In 1775, war began between British troops NCA enabled the laissez faire, restricted and colonists in Massachusetts. the right to vote to property owners, and th o July 4 , 1776 was the day when these controlled the legal system and Continental Congressmen professed the government. American goals of a regulated government, o Phase Two: (the most violent phase) lasted and the right to life, liberty, and the pursuit from September 1792 to August 1795. of happiness.  This time was controlled by the lower o The American Revolution ended in 1783. bourgeois and working classes, who o To establish American goals, Americans executed the king, started the French developed two ideals: the constitutional Republic, and replaced Christianity with convention and a written constitution “the rational ideals. Voting rights were given to Declaration of Independence.” all males, including blacks and Jews, o In 1787, the 3 branches of government education available to all, and slave trade were established- legislative, judicial, and abolished. Women were still not given executive. This idea was derived from the access as the men, like citizenship and writings of John Locke and Montesquieu. voting, but women were given the o Although the U.S. offered hope to the opportunity of equal treatment in marital oppressed, and the struggle for law and inheritance for male and female independence, it didn’t apply to slaves. children, and the legal age for marriage to be at 22. THE FRENCH REVOLUTION:  The Reign of Terror (1793-1794) resulted  Louis XVI took the throne in 1774 when from a civil war amongst each house and the country was divided between the invasions abroad. In 1795, the Directory, aristocrats and bourgeoisie wanting power. which lasted 4 years, was created to share This led to social unrest (lower classes power between 2 legislative houses and 5 despising the upper classes), economic directors. In November of 1799, General inequality, and financial crises. Napoleon Bonaparte overthrew the  The bourgeoisie were basically two-faced Directory and established the Consulate (coup d’etat –French for “a stroke of with their alliances with the king to end aristocracy’s feudal privileges and the state”). nobles in supporting the laissez faire FRENCH EMPIRE: With the system “government hands off.” control of Napoleon (1769-1821), France  In 1789, Louis XVI gathered the Estates- became a monarchy. Napoleon was a General, which led to middle class dictator and military genius, who encouraged totalitarianism. Napoleon ruled representatives creating the National Constituent Assembly. from 1799 to 1815. @Katie_Clark Napoleon suppressed aristocratic privilege, constitutional regime consisting of a kept jobs open to people’s abilities, limited monarchy in 1791. rewarded healthy landowners, and  In 1830, a resistance of the crown which reestablished public education. Napoleon replaced the “Bourbon King”, Louis created a law code, the Napoleonic Code, XVIII, with Louis Philippe- the Duke of abolished serfdom, the guilds, and feudal Orleans (r. 1830-1848). property. Napoleon would conquer territories and THE WEST & ISLAM: THE expand France’s land, but once the new OTTOMAN EMPIRE IN RETREAT, citizens learned of the cost to live, they 1700-1830: resisted. Napoleon’s empire upset and  After the Treaty of Karlowitz in 1699, the disturbed Europe’s balance of power, Ottoman Empire was greatly weakened. which led to the failed invasion of Russia  Between 1699 & 1830, 2 sultans are in 1812 (in winter, the worst time to invade mentioned: Sultan Selim III (r. 1789- Russia). In June of 1815, Great Britain and 1807), who introduced administrative, the other European countries defeated land, taxation, and military reforms, and Napoleon at Waterloo, which led to his Mahmud II (r. 1808-1839), who continued exile at a South Atlantic island and his efforts in government, education, and ultimately his death in 1821. dress in the west.  The Sufi brotherhood and the Wahabi sect SLAVERY AND THE FRENCH influenced millions of Muslims to live by REVOLUTION: Slaves came to the West the Qur’an, and the teachings of the Indies and North America in the 1600s. In Prophet. 1780, about 75,000 slaves a year came to the New World.  The Ottoman Empire mostly fought at its borders with countries, such as Russia, which resulted in 2 wars against Empress TECHNOLOGY: Catherine the Great (r. 1762-1796). The  In the 1730s, the French improved cannons first war led the Ottomans to give up by making it solid metal, and into parts. Crimea to Russia, and the second ended in  By the 1770s, artillery became more a draw in 1792. accurate, powerful, mobile, and safer.  In 1793, France founded the levee en REVOLUTIONS IN ART AND IDEAS: masse “mobilization of all Frenchmen.” FROM NEOCLASSICISM TO  From 1793 to 1815, other countries relied ROMANTICISM: on voluntary troops or those  The neoclassical art was based upon the pressured/tricked into military service. ancient Greco-Roman ideals of balance,  By 1914, most nations adopted the ideal of simplicity, and restraint. Example of a having eligible male citizens to have large classicism novel is by author Jane Austen, armies. who created fictional work set in the REACTION, 1815-1830: countryside and dealt with lower and  In 1815, at the Congress of Vienna, middle class. victors/leaders stripped France of its  In France, painter Jacques-Louis David conquests, restored balance of power, and became the symbol for a new rational reduced reform programs. order for the world.  In France, Louis XVIII (r. 1815-1824) NEOCLASSICISM: declared a charter that guaranteed a @Katie_Clark Jane Austen is a great example of sacrifice spiritual values for knowledge, neoclassicism because of her approach to experience, or mastery. writings about society and pushing the o English poet George Gordon, Lord Byron constraints of female productivity in (1788-1824), created a rebellious and society. She focuses her attention on daring youth such as the character family. Her best known novel is Pride & “Byronic hero,” who was moody, Prejudice (1813). passionate, and perhaps self-centered. Jacques-Louis David founded Eventually, he was thrown into exile for neoclassicism in painting in the 1780s. He his unconventional life. His work such as painted events of that period, such as his Don Juan, illustrated moral duality and the famous piece of martyr Jean-Paul Marat, author’s fascination with nature. who was killed in his bath while holding a o Another example is Frankenstein by Mary paper with a pen to demonstrate his service Wollstonecraft Shelley (1797-1822). It is to the revolution. David did this work to believed to be one of the earliest cautions demonstrate a universal meaning to this of scientific research cut from morality specific time in history. which is an invitation to personal and The most influential architecture in the social disaster. U.S. was by Thomas Jefferson (3 rd president). He designed Virginia State’s PAINTING: Consisted of subjects capitol in Richmond. His influence was (landscape and literary) and themes (love from the Maison Carree, a Roman temple. and cult). England first started with cult: a cult of nature consisting of pastoral and ROMANTICISM: symbolized the sublime. unbounded and untamed. Romantics like to o Pastoral was landscapes, natural be guided by emotion and intuition. In a environment and the divine order. way, expressing nature is a divinity, or Example: John Constable rather an escape from the changes of the o Constable felt that clouds represented Industrial Revolution. Romantics and the emotions such a loneliness and ponder of middle class clashed because of the life. generated group of outlaws, gypsies, and o Sublime was human-made, or rather those outside of the middle class, creating beyond moral. Example: Joseph Mallord hostility. William Turner LITERATURE: The German literary o Sublime was a virtuosic use of color, and movement, “Strum und Drang”- storm and abstract representation of nature. stress, began in the 1770s for which a revolt -Germany: Caspar David Friedrich against classical restraint arose. People (1774-1840), painted brood objected to formality, and wanted love, free landscapes, giving human figures a expression in language, and dress. spiritual scale. o Most famous German writer, Johann -Spain: Francisco Goya (1746-1828), Wolfgang von Goethe (1749-1832), a had a dark vision of the world; grim, social rebel, wrote Faust. Faust became evil spirited, and hopeless. {WARS} the most often performed German- He was a court painter to King language play in the world. It inspired Charles IV. music and paintings. Now the word -France: Theodore Gericault (1791- Faustian means a person who is willing to 1824), painted incidents of escaping death such as The Raft of the @Katie_Clark “medusa.” This painting also forms in his music such as the demonstrated liberal political ideas. sonata, symphony, and the string It became a rally point for the quartet. The genius of his time, and restoration of Bourbon monarchy. long withstanding music even to Eugene Delacroix (1798-1863) today. followed in Gericault’s steps and in addition, became a leader of romantic painting. His paintings came from his bad times, such as Liberty Leading the People. SCIENCE AND PHILOSOPHY: SCIENCE:  Between 1760 & 1830, the scientific revolution became the Western way.  New discoveries in science branched to biological, physical, and natural sciences, botany, zoology, chemistry, and electricity.  Chemistry, founded by Antoine- Laurent Laviosier (1743-1794), conducted experiments with gas, air, and heat.  The 1 chemical, oxygen, was discovered by Joseph Priestly (1733- 1804) around the time of Laviosier.  Laviosier made the way of the classification system co-partly and made the rules for conducting chemical experiments. PHILOSOPHY:  In the 1790s, Immanuel Kant (1724- 1804) distinguished the difference between phenomena “appearances”, and noumena “things-in – themselves.”  Gottlieb Fichte (1762-1814) found a reality amongst the World Spirit, a force having consciousness and seeking self-awareness.  Friedrich Wilhelm Joseph von Schelling (1775-1854) equated nature with the absolute. ROMANTIC MUSIC:  Ludwig van Beethoven (1770-1827), a German who spent most of his time in Vienna, orchestrated classical @Katie_Clark


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