BIOL 1020 Chapter 5 (Macromolecules)
BIOL 1020 Chapter 5 (Macromolecules) Bio 1020
Popular in Principles of Biology I
Popular in Biology
verified elite notetaker
This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Jaylon Notetaker on Tuesday September 20, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Bio 1020 at University of Louisiana at Monroe taught by Dr. Krishnamurthy in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 3 views. For similar materials see Principles of Biology I in Biology at University of Louisiana at Monroe.
Reviews for BIOL 1020 Chapter 5 (Macromolecules)
Report this Material
What is Karma?
Karma is the currency of StudySoup.
You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!
Date Created: 09/20/16
The Structure and Function of Large Biological Molecules Chapter 5: BIOL 1020 >BIOLOGICALLY IMPORTANT MOLECULES (Macromolecules) There are 4 classes of macromolecules in living organisms 1.Carbohydrates 2. Lipids 3.Proteins 4.Nucleic Acids Building blocks – Monomer Chain- Polymer Macromolecule: Large organic polymers Macromolecules Condensation or dehydration reaction >Links monomers to form polymers Hydrolysis > Polymers broken down into monomers Making And Breaking Of Polymers Polymerization – process by which polymers are formed (monomers assembled) Dehydration synthesis (condensation synthesis): formation of large molecules by the removal of water - monomers are joined to form polymers Hydrolysis: breakdown of large molecules by the addition of water -polymers are broken down to monomers The Structure and Function of Large Biological Molecules The Synthesis and Breakdown of Polymers Enzymes are specialized macromolecules that speed up chemical reactions such as those that make or break down polymers A dehydration reaction occurs when two monomers bond together through the loss of a water molecule Polymers are disassembled to monomers by hydrolysis, a reaction that is essentially the reverse of the dehydration reaction Carbohydrates >Serve as fuel and building material Carbohydrates include sugars and the polymers of sugars The simplest carbohydrates are monosaccharides, or simple sugars Carbohydrate macromolecules are polysaccharides, polymers composed of many sugar building blocks Molecules with a 1:2:1 ratio of C, H, O -empirical formula: (CH 2 )n -examples: sugars, starch, glucose Carbon skeleton size varies from 3-7 carbons the most common ones are Triose 3-carbon Pentose 5-carbon Hexose 6-carbon Glucose -a monosaccharide – single sugar -contains 6 carbons -very important in energy storage Eg. Glucose, Fructose, galactose fructose is a structural isomer of glucose -galactose is a stereoisomer of glucose Glucose isomers The Structure and Function of Large Biological Molecules Structural isomers- different arrangement of same elements >Glucose and galactose Stereoisomers >α- and β-glucose Hydroxyl group of carbon 1 above or below ring >D- and L-glucose Enantiomers- mirror image Disaccharides Carbohydrates composed of two monosaccharides Joined by dehydration or condensation reaction Glycosidic bond Broken apart by hydrolysis Examples − sucrose, maltose, lactose Maltose glucose + glucose Lactose glucose + galactose Sucrose glucose + fructose Polysaccharides Many monosaccharides linked together to form long polymers Examples Storage – starch, glycogen Structural role – cellulose, chitin, glycosaminoglycan Lipids Does not include true polymers Made predominantly of hydrogen and carbon atoms Nonpolar and therefore insoluble in water The most biologically important lipids are fats, phospholipids, and steroids Fats are important for energy storage The Structure and Function of Large Biological Molecules 1 gram of fat stores more energy than 1 gram of glycogen or starch Fats can also be structural in providing cushioning and insulation Fats >Also known as triglycerides or triacylglycerols Fats are constructed from two types of smaller molecules: glycerol and fatty acids Glycerol is a three-carbon alcohol with a hydroxyl group attached to each carbon A fatty acid consists of a carboxyl group attached to a long carbon skeleton Fatty acids vary in length (number of carbons) and in the number and locations of double bonds Saturated fatty acids have the maximum number of hydrogen atoms possible and no double bonds Unsaturated fatty acids have one or more double bonds Phospholipids In a phospholipid, two fatty acids and a phosphate group are attached to glycerol Amphipathic molecule Fatty acid chains (tails)-nonpolar,hydrophobic, Phosphate region - polar, hydrophillic, head Steroids Steroids are lipids characterized by a carbon skeleton consisting of four fused rings Cholesterol Cholesterol, a type of steroid, is a component in animal cell membranes and a precursor from which other steroids are synthesized Proteins Proteins account for more than 50% of the dry mass of most cells Some proteins speed up chemical reactions Other protein functions include defense, storage, transport, cellular communication, movement, or structural support The Structure and Function of Large Biological Molecules Composed of carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, and small amounts of other elements, notably sulfur >Amino acids are monomers of proteins >Common structure with variable R-group >20 amino acids >Side-chain determines structure and function Polypeptides (Amino Acid Polymers) Amino acids are linked by covalent bonds called peptide bonds A polypeptide is a polymer of amino acids Polypeptides range in length from a few to more than a thousand monomers Each polypeptide has a unique linear sequence of amino acids, with a carboxyl end (C-terminus) and an amino end (N-terminus)
Are you sure you want to buy this material for
You're already Subscribed!
Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'