New User Special Price Expires in

Let's log you in.

Sign in with Facebook


Don't have a StudySoup account? Create one here!


Create a StudySoup account

Be part of our community, it's free to join!

Sign up with Facebook


Create your account
By creating an account you agree to StudySoup's terms and conditions and privacy policy

Already have a StudySoup account? Login here

BIOL 1020 Chapter 5 (Macromolecules)

by: Jaylon Notetaker

BIOL 1020 Chapter 5 (Macromolecules) Bio 1020

Marketplace > University of Louisiana at Monroe > Biology > Bio 1020 > BIOL 1020 Chapter 5 Macromolecules
Jaylon Notetaker

Preview These Notes for FREE

Get a free preview of these Notes, just enter your email below.

Unlock Preview
Unlock Preview

Preview these materials now for free

Why put in your email? Get access to more of this material and other relevant free materials for your school

View Preview

About this Document

These notes will be covered in the upcoming test.
Principles of Biology I
Dr. Krishnamurthy
Class Notes
25 ?




Popular in Principles of Biology I

Popular in Biology

This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Jaylon Notetaker on Tuesday September 20, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Bio 1020 at University of Louisiana at Monroe taught by Dr. Krishnamurthy in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 3 views. For similar materials see Principles of Biology I in Biology at University of Louisiana at Monroe.


Reviews for BIOL 1020 Chapter 5 (Macromolecules)


Report this Material


What is Karma?


Karma is the currency of StudySoup.

You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!

Date Created: 09/20/16
The Structure and Function of Large Biological Molecules Chapter 5: BIOL 1020 >BIOLOGICALLY IMPORTANT MOLECULES (Macromolecules) There are 4 classes of macromolecules in living organisms 1.Carbohydrates 2. Lipids 3.Proteins 4.Nucleic Acids Building blocks – Monomer Chain- Polymer Macromolecule: Large organic polymers Macromolecules  Condensation or dehydration reaction >Links monomers to form polymers  Hydrolysis > Polymers broken down into monomers Making And Breaking Of Polymers Polymerization – process by which polymers are formed (monomers assembled) Dehydration synthesis (condensation synthesis): formation of large molecules by the removal of water - monomers are joined to form polymers Hydrolysis: breakdown of large molecules by the addition of water -polymers are broken down to monomers The Structure and Function of Large Biological Molecules The Synthesis and Breakdown of Polymers Enzymes are specialized macromolecules that speed up chemical reactions such as those that make or break down polymers A dehydration reaction occurs when two monomers bond together through the loss of a water molecule Polymers are disassembled to monomers by hydrolysis, a reaction that is essentially the reverse of the dehydration reaction Carbohydrates >Serve as fuel and building material Carbohydrates include sugars and the polymers of sugars The simplest carbohydrates are monosaccharides, or simple sugars Carbohydrate macromolecules are polysaccharides, polymers composed of many sugar building blocks Molecules with a 1:2:1 ratio of C, H, O -empirical formula: (CH 2 )n -examples: sugars, starch, glucose Carbon skeleton size varies from 3-7 carbons the most common ones are Triose 3-carbon Pentose 5-carbon Hexose 6-carbon Glucose -a monosaccharide – single sugar -contains 6 carbons -very important in energy storage Eg. Glucose, Fructose, galactose fructose is a structural isomer of glucose -galactose is a stereoisomer of glucose Glucose isomers The Structure and Function of Large Biological Molecules Structural isomers- different arrangement of same elements >Glucose and galactose Stereoisomers >α- and β-glucose Hydroxyl group of carbon 1 above or below ring >D- and L-glucose Enantiomers- mirror image Disaccharides Carbohydrates composed of two monosaccharides Joined by dehydration or condensation reaction Glycosidic bond Broken apart by hydrolysis Examples − sucrose, maltose, lactose Maltose glucose + glucose Lactose glucose + galactose Sucrose glucose + fructose Polysaccharides Many monosaccharides linked together to form long polymers Examples Storage – starch, glycogen Structural role – cellulose, chitin, glycosaminoglycan Lipids Does not include true polymers Made predominantly of hydrogen and carbon atoms Nonpolar and therefore insoluble in water The most biologically important lipids are fats, phospholipids, and steroids Fats are important for energy storage The Structure and Function of Large Biological Molecules 1 gram of fat stores more energy than 1 gram of glycogen or starch Fats can also be structural in providing cushioning and insulation Fats >Also known as triglycerides or triacylglycerols Fats are constructed from two types of smaller molecules: glycerol and fatty acids Glycerol is a three-carbon alcohol with a hydroxyl group attached to each carbon A fatty acid consists of a carboxyl group attached to a long carbon skeleton Fatty acids vary in length (number of carbons) and in the number and locations of double bonds Saturated fatty acids have the maximum number of hydrogen atoms possible and no double bonds Unsaturated fatty acids have one or more double bonds Phospholipids In a phospholipid, two fatty acids and a phosphate group are attached to glycerol Amphipathic molecule Fatty acid chains (tails)-nonpolar,hydrophobic, Phosphate region - polar, hydrophillic, head Steroids Steroids are lipids characterized by a carbon skeleton consisting of four fused rings Cholesterol Cholesterol, a type of steroid, is a component in animal cell membranes and a precursor from which other steroids are synthesized Proteins Proteins account for more than 50% of the dry mass of most cells Some proteins speed up chemical reactions Other protein functions include defense, storage, transport, cellular communication, movement, or structural support The Structure and Function of Large Biological Molecules Composed of carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, and small amounts of other elements, notably sulfur >Amino acids are monomers of proteins >Common structure with variable R-group >20 amino acids >Side-chain determines structure and function Polypeptides (Amino Acid Polymers) Amino acids are linked by covalent bonds called peptide bonds A polypeptide is a polymer of amino acids Polypeptides range in length from a few to more than a thousand monomers Each polypeptide has a unique linear sequence of amino acids, with a carboxyl end (C-terminus) and an amino end (N-terminus)


Buy Material

Are you sure you want to buy this material for

25 Karma

Buy Material

BOOM! Enjoy Your Free Notes!

We've added these Notes to your profile, click here to view them now.


You're already Subscribed!

Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'

Why people love StudySoup

Jim McGreen Ohio University

"Knowing I can count on the Elite Notetaker in my class allows me to focus on what the professor is saying instead of just scribbling notes the whole time and falling behind."

Allison Fischer University of Alabama

"I signed up to be an Elite Notetaker with 2 of my sorority sisters this semester. We just posted our notes weekly and were each making over $600 per month. I LOVE StudySoup!"

Steve Martinelli UC Los Angeles

"There's no way I would have passed my Organic Chemistry class this semester without the notes and study guides I got from StudySoup."

Parker Thompson 500 Startups

"It's a great way for students to improve their educational experience and it seemed like a product that everybody wants, so all the people participating are winning."

Become an Elite Notetaker and start selling your notes online!

Refund Policy


All subscriptions to StudySoup are paid in full at the time of subscribing. To change your credit card information or to cancel your subscription, go to "Edit Settings". All credit card information will be available there. If you should decide to cancel your subscription, it will continue to be valid until the next payment period, as all payments for the current period were made in advance. For special circumstances, please email


StudySoup has more than 1 million course-specific study resources to help students study smarter. If you’re having trouble finding what you’re looking for, our customer support team can help you find what you need! Feel free to contact them here:

Recurring Subscriptions: If you have canceled your recurring subscription on the day of renewal and have not downloaded any documents, you may request a refund by submitting an email to

Satisfaction Guarantee: If you’re not satisfied with your subscription, you can contact us for further help. Contact must be made within 3 business days of your subscription purchase and your refund request will be subject for review.

Please Note: Refunds can never be provided more than 30 days after the initial purchase date regardless of your activity on the site.