Microbiology Week 2 Notes
Microbiology Week 2 Notes Biol 2014
Popular in Microbiology
Popular in Microbiology
This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Angelle Notetaker on Tuesday September 20, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Biol 2014 at University of Louisiana at Monroe taught by Allison wiedemeier in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 7 views. For similar materials see Microbiology in Microbiology at University of Louisiana at Monroe.
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Date Created: 09/20/16
Microbiology 2014 Chemistry and Organic Molecules Wiedemeier ULM I. Elements II. Atoms A. Define Atom B. Chemical Reactions C. Parts of an Atom 1. proton 2. neutron 3. electron III. Rules A. Atomic Number B. Equal number of protons and electrons C. Electron “shells” IV. Attraction Between Atoms A. Unstable B. Complete Outer Shells C. Ways to complete 1. Gain or Lose 2. Share D. Molecules E. Compound F. Bonds and Energy V. Bonds A. Ions B. Ionic Bonds C. Covalent Bonds D. Hydrogen Bonds VI. Chemical Reactions A. Conversion of Materials B. Bond Energy 1. Exergonic Reaction= energy released. The reactants contain more energy than the products. 2. Endergonic Reaction=energy required. The products contain more energy than the reactants. C. Synthesis Reaction (reactants) A+B -> AB (products) = anabolism D. Decomposition Reaction AB -> A+B E. Exchange Reactions (reactants) AB+CD -> AC+BD (products) F. Reversible Reactions A+B -> <- AB ABVII. Inorganic Molecules A. Definition-small simple molecules that lack carbohydrogen molecules B. Water 1. Polar, polar water attracts other polar (charged) molecules. 2. Oxygen and Hydrogen 3. Opposite charges 4. Dissociation Microbiology 2014 Chemistry and Organic Molecules Wiedemeier ULM VIII. Organic Molecules A. Definition- molecules that contain both carbon and hydrogen B. Functional Groups C. Four Organic Molecules that form the basis of life on earth. Carbohydrates, Lipids, Proteins, Nucleic Acids. IX. Carbohydrates A. Definition-molecules made of carbon, hydrogen and oxygen B. Classifications 1. Monosaccharides: single sugars 2. Disaccharides= combination of two single sugars Hydrolysis Reaction R-OH+H-R1 <- R-R1+H2O 3. Polysaccharides= many sugars, hooked together. Starch, glucogen, cellulose, chitin C. Functions 1. Structural component such as cell walls. 2. Food Reserves 3. Source of energy X. Lipids A. Structure- depends upon the amount of hydrogens on the fatty acids tails Combination of C,H,O. Oils, Fats, Waxes, Steroids. Non-polar = water - hating 1. Fatty Acid Tails – Long chains of carbon and hydrogen, with a COOH- group on one end. 2. Glycerol Heads- Alcohol head unit. Fat Molecule Glycerol 1- Fatty Acids When combined- release of water B. Saturated and Unsaturated Fats C. Complex Lipids- Contains P,N,S 1.Phospholipid- Major component of membranes. [ polar phosphate head = hydrophilic ] [ non polar fatty acid tails: insoluble in water = hydrophobic ] D. Functions 1. energy storage 2. structure of cell walls and membranes 3. steroids and sterol XI. Proteins A. Structure Contains C,H,O,N Chain of amino acids B. Side Groups- 20 different amino acids- dependent upon different side groups. [ side group can change: size, water solubility, electrical charge ] C. Peptide Bonds form between amino acids (20) by dehydration reactions D. Sequence of the amino acids determines the protein produced E. Folding- Amino acids can interact with each other, causing folding of the polypeptide. F. Functions of proteins 1. Structure- nails, hair, cytoskeleton, cell walls, membranes, cell parts 2. Enzymes 3. Transporter proteins 4. toxins 5. movement- muscles and flagella 6. hormones 7. Antibodies G. Denature: to deform a protein [ denature proteins cannot function ] XII. Nucleic Acids A. Structure: long chains of nucleotides B. Two types of nucleotides determined by the sugar choice a. Ribose b. Deoxyribose C. Nucleic Acids = nucleic acids D. DNA Double stranded E. DNA Base Pairings 1. adenine always binds to thymine A---T 2. Guanine always binds to cytosine G---C 3. Strands run opposite to each other F. Complementary Strand G. RNA H. ATP
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