Week 5, Reading Chapter 3.4 (section 3.4.2)
Week 5, Reading Chapter 3.4 (section 3.4.2) 4100
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Leslea Motley on Tuesday September 20, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to 4100 at University of Georgia taught by Kara Dyckman in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 4 views. For similar materials see Cognitive Psychology in Psychology (PSYC) at University of Georgia.
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Date Created: 09/20/16
09.08 CH 3 – Sensation & Perception 1 Read 3.4 (EXCEPT 3.4.1) 3.4: Auditory Perception Report the Science of Hearing Auditory stimuli are sound waves moving through the air; human hearing systems respond to these stimuli w/ various components: Rube Goldberg- type mechanism 1. Sound waves funneled into ear 2. Tympanic membrane (‘ear drum’) vibrates 3. Causes the bones of the middle ear to move 4. Movement causes movement of fluid in the inner ear cavity 5. Moving fluid moves tiny hair cells long the basilar membrane 6. This movement generates a neural message (sent along the auditory nerve into the cerebral cortex) Both ears project auditory info to both hemispheres, although the majority of input follows laws of contralaterality. 09.08 CH 3 – Sensation & Perception 2 Primary auditory cortex – region in the superior [upper] medial temporal lobe extends somewhat further back in the brain into the parietal lobe; auditory input sent primarily to this cortex. Generally, humans are sensitive to [wave] patterns as lows as 20 cps (cycles per second) and as high as 20,000cps – although upper limits decline with age. Most sounds (i.e., speech, music) are very complex, combine dozens of different [wave] frequencies that vary in intensity/loudness – these different frequencies are superimposed and can be summarized in a spectrum. 3.4.2: Auditory Pattern Recognition 1. Templates Attempts at explaining auditory pattern recognition (how we recognize sounds/interpret them, such as, language) by using stored templates in memory – ABANDONED ATTEMPTS – because in language, people produce different language sounds, and even same sounds produced by same speaker vary widely. Problem of invariance: problem is that the sounds of speech are not invariant from one time to the next; instead, any particular sound changes depending on the sounds that precede and follow it in a word. 2. Feature Detection These models paralleled work in vision are were more successful; lead to similar conclusions as in vision: lots of evidence that context [conceptually drive processing] plays a decisive role. 3. Conceptually Drives Processing Two examples: o Pollack and Pickett (1964) – recorded idle conversations of volunteers who were waiting to be in the research project, recordings played to other people to see if they could identify the words, which they could – but in a more interesting condition, individual words were spliced out and played in isolation; here, only half of all the words could be identified. They concluded that removing words from their original context made it extremely difficult to recognize the words – by inference, then, context plays an important role on spoken word identification. o Warren and Warren (1970) – played speech to people and asked them to report what they heard; researchers engineered recordings to remove one specific language sound [‘phoneme’] from a single word. People heard altered sentences; they came to conclusion that perception and identification of speech are heavily dependent on context, on top-down processing; also a nice reminder of the difference between sensation and perception – physical, sensory nature of sensation but the overwhelmingly cognitive nature of perception. Quiz on CH 3 1. Two people can hear the same song and perceive lyrics differently. True 09.08 CH 3 – Sensation & Perception 3 2. Auditory input to the left ear is processed primarily in the ____ lobe of the brain. Right temporal lobe 3. The fact that context plays a large role in how we perceive certain sounds reflects the role of which type of processing? BOTH Top-down processing and Conceptually-driven processing 4. The same person can say the same word differently from one time to the next. This is referred to as the ________ and is problematic for the _______ theory of auditory perception. Problem of invariance; template 5. Older adults often lose their sensitivity to sounds in the 100-120cps range. False (Generally, humans hear in the range of 20-20,000cps – losing the higher levels of cps with age.)
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