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Psycholgy Notes

by: Makala Schnablegger

Psycholgy Notes PSY 1001

Makala Schnablegger


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About this Document

These notes cover everything that we have talked about in class up until now, from the beginning of class.
Introductory Psychology
Dr. Morey Kitzman
Class Notes
Intro to Psychology, behaviorism, humanism
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Makala Schnablegger on Tuesday September 20, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSY 1001 at Metropolitan State University of Denver taught by Dr. Morey Kitzman in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 16 views. For similar materials see Introductory Psychology in Psychology at Metropolitan State University of Denver.


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Date Created: 09/20/16
Psychology Notes from the beginning of the semester Test is on 9/28/2016 and will be multiple choice o Assert Yourself (Assertive- Having or showing a confident and forceful personality) o Stop letting people walk all over you o Cognitive Behavioral Therapy(CBT)- Therapy focused on the idea that the way we think about things affects how we feel emotionally o Important Names-  Albert Ellis- Developed rational emotive behavior therapy (A form of CBT where someone is encouraged to look at and change irrational thought patterns) in 1955 o Activating Event + Belief = Emotional Consequence  Example: Black cat + A person’s Superstition = Fear o Neurotic Cycling – Letting your thoughts go way out of control after an activating event o Minimizing the importance of you o Motivation- The driving force for most humans o Facial Feedback Theory- Whatever emotion on your face can induce a corresponding mood. o Example: Smile and you will be happy o We feel guilty because we didn’t achieve what we believe that we should have o Tyranny of The Should o Fixed Role Therapy- The person attending therapy is given a role to be enacted for two weeks based on a third person pov paragraph that they wrote about themselves o Important Name:  George Kelly- Developed Fixed Role Therapy o Stimulation in our Society- o Everyone has an optimal level, or set point, of arousal, or stimulation that dictates their level of boredom. o This level is different for everyone. o It has been going up in most people lately due to technological advancement o Active Stimulation Vs Passive Stimulation o Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs o Commonly depicted in a pyramid, Maslow’s hierarchy of needs suggests that we as humans start with the bottom most needs and work our way up. Without those bottom ones, the rest are virtually unreachable. o Physical Needs: Food, Water, Warmth, Rest, Sex o Safety: Security, Safety o Belonging: Intimate Relationships, Friends o Esteem: Feeling of accomplishment o Self-Actualization: Achieving one’s full potential. (The opposite of which is self- stagnation) o Behaviorism: 1930’s o Behaviorists say that humans are no more than machines. o Humans have no will, mind, self, or choice, and are controlled purely by outside forces. o They say that if we reward the behaviors we want then we can create the perfect society  They value praise, attention, and verbal reinforcement o They suggest that human beings are stupid o Paradigm: set of assumptions scientists make about human beings in psychology that leads their research.  Important Name:  Thomas Kuhn- Philosopher of science o The goal of psychology is the utopian society o Eugenics decided on the idea of selective breeding o People Crave Paternalism- the authority to take care of us o Behaviorism Blocks Freud’s Theories o Classical Conditioning- a learning process where someone is given one thing, with another thing, so that they expect the one thing with the other thing every time.  Used in advertising  Important Names:  Pavlov- Pavlov’s Dog experiment where he gave dogs food and rang a bell at the same time, until eventually he could ring the bell and the dogs would expect food and their mouths would salivate  Watson- Believed that Classical Conditioning could explain all aspects of human psychology o Operant Conditioning- Learning through rewards and punishments for behavior  Rewards:  Primary: food, water, sex (Biologically linked rewards)  Secondary: Praise, Hugs, Smiles (Aesthetically linked rewards)  Important Names:  BF Skinner- Developed Operant Conditioning o Higher Order Conditioning: Similar to Classical Conditioning where another unrelated stimulus is added to the equation. o Method of Successive Approximation- A method used mainly in operant conditioning where desired behaviors are reinforced o Social Learning Theory/ Observational Learning – People learn from one another  Negative and Positive reinforcement  Negative- A certain stimulus is removed from the environment  Positive- A certain stimulus is added to the environment  Important Names:  Bandura: 1960 o Exposure Effect- (Gradual)Constant exposure to a stimulus will make a person prefer that stimulus o Important Names:  Jajonc o Flooding Therapy- (Head on) Sudden exposure to a stimulus o Virtual Exposure Therapy- (Positive Imaging) Think positive and positive things will happen o Humanistic Psychology- an approach to psychology that emphasizes feeling and emotions o Passive Theory of Mind- your minds preferred state of mind is to do nothing. (Lazy) o Active Theory of Mind- we are happiest when we have a challenge o Neophobia- the fear of something new


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