COMM 121 Lecture 3 Note
COMM 121 Lecture 3 Note Comm 121
Popular in Intro to Media & Culture
Popular in Communication
This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Jieun Son on Tuesday September 20, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Comm 121 at University of Massachusetts taught by Lisa Henderson in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 6 views. For similar materials see Intro to Media & Culture in Communication at University of Massachusetts.
Reviews for COMM 121 Lecture 3 Note
Report this Material
What is Karma?
Karma is the currency of StudySoup.
You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!
Date Created: 09/20/16
COMM 121 Media Structure Who's left out of capitalist realism? People without the resources to buy People who want to resist "consumer culture." Policy and regulation; the case of copyright and net neutrality Government body that regulates media: the Federal Communication Commission (FCC) Established as Federal Radio Commission in 1934; works with Congress but is independent. In the US, histories of more and less regulation. Why? Big firms prefer not to be regulated by government: lobby for de- regulation. Three areas of law and policy especially relevant now: 1 First Amendment and the Citizens United decision a What is Citizens United? : Supreme Court case bearing the name of non-profit group that sued Federal Election Commission and won. b CU the legal nickname for a decision in the US supreme Court: Citizens United vs. Federal Election Commission (2010). c Ruled that it was a free speech violation for the federal government to limit corporate or union spending on TV and radio ads in campaigns; d Contributions are not made directly to candidates but to political action committees (PACs or "Super PACs") sponsored by corporate interests and super-rich donors. e For opponents, Citizens United is the end of free elections in the name of free speech. f First Amendment to the US Constitution as "bedrock", but also something we need to treat as history, with changing importance over time. Zephyr Teachout In her vote, she got about 35% of it (at the cost of $1.57 per vote in campaign expenses, in contrast to Andrew Cuomo's $60.62). She argues that the hyper-protection of the First Amendment (where "money= speech") arises from changes in who is on the Supreme Court. Used to be lawyers, who became politicians, then judges; their priority was "free elections." Last 60 years: USSC judges come from the law academy. They becomes lawyers then academics; their priority is "free speech." COMM 121 Her research takes her back to the first years of the USSC, reviewing the background of every judge appointed since then to discover patterns. Her interest? "Anti-corruption" : get big money out of federal election campaigns. Like Bernie Sanders, she wants to overturn Citizens United. She's running on small money. Zephyr Teachout story explains why campaign finance means so much, especially in election season. 1 Net neutrality a Free speech and digital media: a Legislation preserving open access to the Internet and a level playing field for all websites; all content treated equally. b No "fast lanes" and "slow lanes" for different operators. c In 2010, this cause was more or less lost. New legislation favored long-standing corporate providers, who wanted their own fast lanes. d In 2015, however, the FCC approved an "Order to Protect and Promote the Open Internet." e Brings the internet under "common carrier" rules, like the wired telephone. f Debated in Congress, but no attempt to overturn the Order to Protect. g Big firms would still like to overturn it, and to "monetize" broadband speed, charging different rates for different channels based on speed. h Public interests (like libraries) and small firms (like startups) call the order "essential" to free expression and entering into business. On Moodle: see the 187 signers of a thank-you letter to the FCC, e.g. including Kickstarter. 1 Copyright and fair use a Copyright law protects the sale and distribution of "copyrighted" material b Rights held by the owner of the copyright (who may not be the original author of the material). c Use without permission or payment means infringement, "breaking the law," penalty. d Over the years, protections expanded to a wide variety of visual, sound, and computer software products. e "Intellectual property" (IP) f File sharing poses problems in intellectual property law. g Why? - Because someone uses and share other's private file. Napster COMM 121 Who knows what Napster was? Early music download software that enabled users to share MP3 files on-line. Napster was sued for IP infringement by Recording Industry Association of America (RIAA). RIAA says Napster is not "fair use." What is "fair use"? "reasonable exceptions" to copyright protection. Fair use exceptions based on: Purpose and character of use (commercial? Transformative?) Nature of copyrighted material (non-fiction?) Amount of original work used? (> or < 10%?) Effect upon work's value (diminished by non-licensed use?)
Are you sure you want to buy this material for
You're already Subscribed!
Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'