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Chapter 1

by: Madeleine Reinstein

Chapter 1 BIOL 210

Madeleine Reinstein
Montgomery County Community College
GPA 3.73

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Naming and Classifying Microorganisms Prokaryotes vs. Eukaryotes A Brief History of Microbiology Microbiologists
Ijeoma N. Otigbuo
Class Notes
Microbiology, prokaryotes, eukaryotes, microorganisms, Microbiologists
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Madeleine Reinstein on Tuesday September 20, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to BIOL 210 at Montgomery County Community College taught by Ijeoma N. Otigbuo in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 2 views. For similar materials see MICROBIOLOGY in Biology at Montgomery County Community College.

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Date Created: 09/20/16
CH 1 The Microbial World and You Microbes in Our Lives  Microbes o Minute living things that individually are usually too small to be seen with the unaided eye o Ex. Bacteria, protozoa, fungi, microscopic algae, and viruses o Contributions to life: Aid in digestion, basis of food chain in marine and freshwater environments, pay important role in photosynthesis o Commercial Applications: used in the synthesis of vitamins, enzymes, alcohols, and many drugs, produce vinegar, sauerkraut, cheese, yogurt, and bread o Pathogenic: disease causing  Aseptic Techniques: Steps taken to prevent contamination Naming and Classifying Microorganisms Nomenclature  Carlolus Linnaeus o Established the system for naming organisms in 1735  Two names o Genus: first name and always capitalized o Specific epithet: follows genus and is not capitalized o Both names are underlined or italicized o Ex. Staphylococcus aureus or Staphylococcus aureus Types of Microorganisms Lecture Notes: Main Differences between Prokaryotes and Eukaryotes Prokaryotes Eukaryotes Bacteria Protists, fungi, plants, Animalia No nucleus or organelles Nucleus and organelles Circular DNA Linear DNA No histone protein or chromosomes Histone proteins are present Asexual reproduction Both sexual and asexual reproduction Cell wall- peptidoglycan Cell wall- cellulose or chitin Prokaryotes Bacteria Simple, single celled organisms Appear in several shapes: rod-like, spherical, spiral, star-shaped, or square May form pairs, chains, clusters, or other groupings Enclosed in a cell wall made of peptidoglycan Reproduce by binary fission Are motile and generally use organic material for nutrition Archaea Cell walls lack peptidoglycan Often found in extreme environments: Methanogens produce methane as a waste product; Halophiles live in salty environments; Thermophiles live in hot sulfurous water Eukaryotes Fungi Cells have a distinct nucleus containing the cell’s genetic material Cell walls composed of chitin Most common forms: Mold which forms visible masses called mycelia The unicellular form of fungi is yeast Reproduce asexually or sexually Protozoa Motile unicellular microbes Variety of shapes and live as either free entities or parasites Reproduce asexually or sexually Algae Photosynthesis eukaryotes Cell walls are made of cellulose Reproduce asexually or sexually Multicellular Helminths: flatworms and round worms Animal Parasites  Viruses o Acellular and contains a core made of only DNA or RNA Classification of Microorganisms  1978 Carl Woese o Devised a system of classification based on the cellular organization of organisms 1. Bacteria Cell walls contain peptidoglycan 2. Archaea Cells walls lack peptidoglycan 3. Eukarya Protists (slime molds, protozoa, algae), fungi (yeast, multicellular molds, and mushrooms), Plants, and animals Lecture Notes: Main Differences between Eubacteria and Archeobacteria Eubacteria Archeobacteria Grows in moderate climates Grows in extreme climates Methanogens, extreme halophiles, extreme thermophiles Have peptidoglycan in cell wall Lack peptidoglycan in cell wall A Brief History of Microbiology The First Observations  1665 Robert Hooke; Father of Cells o Using a compound microscope Hooke was able to see individual cells in a slice of cork  Cell Theory: All living things are composed of cells  1673-1723 Anton van Leeuwenhoek; Father of Microscope o First to observe microorganisms in his teeth scrapings, feces, and rainwater The Debate over Spontaneous Generation  Spontaneous generation: some forms of life could arise spontaneously from nonliving matter Evidence Pro and Con  1668 Francesco Redi o Strong opponent of spontaneous generation theory o Set up experiment with two glass jars filled with meat, one covered and one open to air. Flies were able to enter the open jar while no maggots appeared in closed jar. The Theory of Biogenesis  1858 Rudolf Virchow o Biogenesis: all living cells can arise only from preexisting living cells  1861 Louis Pasteur Fully debunked spontaneous generation o Demonstrated that microorganisms are in the air and can contaminate sterile solutions, but the air itself does not create microbes o Used swan necked flasks to trap microorganisms The Golden Age of Microbiology 1857-1914 The Golden Age of Microbiology Fermentation and Pasteurization  Fermentation: process of yeast converting sugar into alcohol without the presence of oxygen  Pasteurization: used to reduce spoilage and kill potentially harmful bacteria o Application of high heat for a short time or low heat for a long period of time The Germ Theory of Disease  Germ Theory: idea that microorganisms might cause disease  1876 Robert Koch o Proved that bacterium causes anthrax and provided experimental steps, Koch’s postulates, to prove that a specific microbe causes a specific disease  1860s Joseph Lister: Father of disinfectants Vaccination  1796 Edward Jenner o Inoculated a person with cowpox virus, who was then protected from smallpox o This protection is called immunity The Birth of Modern Chemotherapy: Dreams of a “Magic Bullet” The First Synthetic Drugs  Quinine from tree bark was long used to treat malaria  1910 Paul Ehrlich o Developed a synthetic arsenic drug, salvarsan, to treat syphilis  1928 Alexander Fleming o Discovered the first antibiotics; penicillium fungus which killed Staphylococcus aureus


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