Tuesday 09/20/16 Lecture Notes
Tuesday 09/20/16 Lecture Notes PSYC 1301
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This 7 page Class Notes was uploaded by Izabella Brock on Tuesday September 20, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSYC 1301 at University of Texas at El Paso taught by Dr. Zarate in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 69 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Psychology in Psychology (PSYC) at University of Texas at El Paso.
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PSYC 1301 Seept 20,20016 Lecture Notes Class Info: • Laptop required for in-class extra credit quiz • Password: Packrules Class Notes: • Associated Areas: Frontal Lobes o The frontal lobes are active in “executive functions” such as judgment, planning, and inhibition of impulses o The frontal lobes are also active in the use of work • Four Major Lobes: Frontal Lobe o Its expansion differentiates humans from other animals o Involved in thinking, planning, and emotional control, as seen in Phineas Gage’s case o Plays role in motor control through primary motor cortex o Involved in planning, initiating, and executing voluntary movements • The Forebrain o Parietal Lobe – perception of space, object shape and orientation, actions of others, numbers § Integrates vision, touch, motor information § Somatosensory cortex – pressure, temperature, pain • Four Major Lobes: Parietal Lobe o Parietal Lobe process somatosensory information o Somatosensory cortex receives information from touch receptors in different parts of the body o The body’s representation on the somatosensory cortex is not proportional, but is based on the sensitivity of that body area • Parietal Lobe Association Areas o This part of the brain has many functions in the association areas behind the sensory strip: § Managing input from multiple senses § Preform spatial and mathematical reasoning § Monitoring the sensation of movement • Temporal Lobe Association Areas o Some abilities managed by association areas in this “by the temples” lobe: § Recognizing specific faces • We have a difficult time recognizing faces when they are presented to us upside down § Managing sensory input related to sound, which helps the understanding of spoken words PSYC 1301 Seppt200,20116 Lecture Notes • The Forebrain o Occipital lobe – vision § Visual cortex o Sensory cortical Hierarchies • The Lobes of the Cerebral Cortex: o Frontal Lobes – involved in speaking and muscle movements and in making plans and judgments o Parietal Lobes – include the sensory cortex o Occipital Lobes – include the visual areas; they receive visual information from the opposite visual field o Temporal Lobes – include the auditory processing areas • Key Structures of the Forebrain and Limbic System o In the cross-sectional view shown here, you can see the locations and functions of four important subcortical brain structures o In combination, these structures make up the limbic system, which regulates emotional control, leaning, and memory o Image: § Hypothalamus – links brain and endocrine systems, regulates hunger, sleep, and behavior § Thalamus – processes and integrates sensory information § Amygdala – involved in memory and emotion, especially fear and anger § Hippocampus – involved in forming new memories • The Limbic (“Border”) System o The limbic system coordinates: § Emotions such as fear and aggression § Basic drives such as hunger and sex § The formation of episodic memories o The hippocampus (“seahorse”) § Processes conscious, episodic memories § Works with the amygdala to form emotionally charged memories o The Amygdala (“almond”) § Consists of two lima bean-sized neural clusters § Helps process emotions, especially fear and aggression • The Amygdala o Electrical stimulation of a cat’s amygdala provokes aggressive reactions o If you move the electrode very slightly and cage the cat with a mouse, the cat will cover in terror • Hypothalamus o The Hypothalamus lies below (hypo) the thalamus. It directs several maintenance activities like eating, drinking, body temperature, and control of emotions. It helps govern the endocrine system via the pituitary gland. PSYC 1301 Septt20,,2016 Lecture Notes • The Cerebral Hemispheres and the Corpus Callosum o The two hemispheres of the cerebral cortex can be clearly seen in this side-to-side cross-sectional view of the brain o The main communications link connecting the two cerebral hemispheres is the corpus callosum, a thick, broad bundle of some 300 million myelinated neuron axons • Cutting the Corpus Callosum: the Split Brain o Theoretically the right hemisphere is more perceptual • Right-Left Differences in the Intact Brain o People with intact brains also show left-right hemispheric differences in mental abilities o A number of brain scan studies show normal individuals engage their right brain when completing a perceptual task and their left brain when carrying out a linguistic task • The intact but lateralized brain: Right-Left Hemisphere Differences • Left Hemisphere o Thoughts and logic o Details such as “trees” o Language: words and definitions o Linear and literal calculation o Pieces and details • Right Hemisphere o Feelings and intuition o Big picture such as “forest” o Language: tone, inflection, context o Inferences and associations perception o Wholes, including the self • Separating the Hemispheres: Factors to keep in mind o Each hemisphere controls the opposite side of the body AND is aware of the visual field on that opposite side o Without the corpus callosum, the laves of the body and the halves of the visual field do not work together o Only the left half of the brain has enough verbal ability to express its thoughts out loud • Specialization and Integration: Five steps in reading a word aloud o Visual cortex – receives written words as visual stimulation o Angular gyrus – transforms visual representations into an auditory code o Wernicke’s area – interprets auditory code o Broca’s area – controls speech muscles via the motor cortex o Motor cortex – word is pronounced • Plasticity: the Brain is Flexible o If the brain is damaged, especially in the general association areas of the cortex: § The brain does not repair damaged neurons, BUT it can restore some function PSYC 1301 Septt20,,20116 Lecture Notes • The brain does repair itself much slower than other parts of the body § It can form new connections, reassign existing networks, and insert new neurons, some growth from stem cells • It is easier to learn when you are used to learning New Chapter - 4 • Introduction: Consciousness o Consciousness § Personal and immediate awareness of • Mental activity • Internal sensations • External stimuli and the world around you • Planning or active problem solving • What is consciousness? o Normally, awareness § Working memory § So if driving, attend to the road, not your phone o Normally, it is personal, selective, and constantly changing o Drug states o Sleep states o Near death descriptions (endorphins) • Attention: the Mind’s Spotlight o Characteristics of attention § Attention has a limited capacity § Attention is selective § Attention can be “blind and deaf” § Working memory, or your stream of consciousness • The Perils of Multitasking o Multitasking § Refers to doing two or more things at once § Involves the division of attention • Driving can become an automated task • The eyes are needed to drive and to text – your eyes cant do both at the same time so we end up switching back and forth o Cell Phone risks § Driving was more impaired when drivers were talking on a cell phone than when the same drivers were legally drunk § Using a headset or Bluetooth device wile driving does not improve safety § Texting while driving is particularly dangerous • What influences your consciousness? o Do you consider yourself a morning or night person? PSYC 1301 Seppt20,,2016 Lecture Notes o Do you do drugs? o Coffee, alcohol, and nicotine are drugs o Do you sleep In Class Extra-Credit Quiz Questions 1. Consciousness allows us to a. Cope with recurring anxiety and stress b. Avoid unpleasant memories c. Sleep peacefully at night d. Integrate past, present, and future behavior 2. Because attention is limited capacity, we tend to: a. Focus on information that is most relevant to our immediate or long term- goals b. Be easily hypnotized c. Get overwhelmed by all the sights, sounds, and other sensations in the external environment d. Always hear our name mentioned at a party 3. If you are like most people, you experience daily fluctuations in many bodily processes, such as blood pressure, the secretion of hormones, and so on. These daily variations in biological and psychological processes are called: a. Delta brain wave activity b. Free running conditions c. REM rebound effects d. Circadian rhythms 4. Exposure to sunlight and other bright lights: a. Suppresses the production of melatonin b. Reduces the incidence of sleep spindles c. Suppresses the level of hypocretins in the brain d. Increase the production of melatonin 5. Dr. Repetti is a sleep researcher who wishes to record the rhythmic electrical patterns of the brain. Which of the following methods is he most likely to use? a. Monitoring blood levels of melatonin b. Doing electrocardiography tests c. Recording brain waves on an electroencephalograph d. Tracking changes in breathing, blood pressure, and body temperature 6. REM is an acronym that stands for: a. Rapid ear movement b. Rapid eye movement c. Random eye movement d. Restless eye movement 7. Sleep paralysis: a. Is the most common cause of insomnia b. Is experienced only when people are falling asleep PSYC 1301 Septt20,,2016 Lecture Notes c. Usually lasts for a few minutes d. Usually precedes an episode of sleepwalking 8. As you are lying in bed, your mind begins to drift and you become increasingly drowsy. During this short, transitional stage of sleep you disengage from the routine sounds in your environment. This sleep stage is called: a. Paradoxical sleep b. Stage 2 NREM c. REM sleep d. Stage 1 NREM 9. On an average, each complete cycle through the stages of NREM sleep and REM sleep lasts about: a. 20 minutes b. 8 hours c. 1 hour d. 90 minutes 10. Because of the effects of depriving research subjects of either REM sleep or stages 3 and 4 NREM deep sleep, it seems clear that: a. REM sleep is a necessary component of sleep but deep sleep is not b. We need to experience the full range of NREM sleep stages and REM sleep c. Neither REM sleep nor NREM sleep are necessary components of sleep d. Deep sleep is a necessary component of sleep but REM sleep is not 11. Which of the following is an example of parasomnia? a. Having a vivid dream about the automobile accident you witnessed earlier in the day b. Obstructive sleep apnea c. Being unable to sleep despite feeling tired d. Sleep terrors 12. The best candidates for hypnosis are people who: a. Are very shy b. Seldom remember their dreams c. Frequently have lucid dreams d. Can easily become immersed in fantasy and imaginary experiences 13. Which of the following changes cannot be produced through hypnosis? a. Temporary moments of superhuman strength b. Temporary blindness or deafness c. Relief from pain d. Loss of sensation in a specific body area, such as an arm or a leg 14. Psychologist Ernest Hilgard uses the term “hidden observer” to refer to the: a. Stream of mental activity that the hypnotized person is not consciously aware of, yet continues to process b. Fact that the hypnotized person is often unaware of other people in the room c. Use of a second hypnotist during hypnotic training sessions d. Fact that the hypnotized person experiences multiple personalities 15. In a study examining brain differences between practitioners of medication and those who never meditated, MRI scans showed that: PSYC 1301 Septt20,20016 Lecture Notes a. Several cortical areas were thinner in the mediator’s’ brains than in the nonmediators b. Mediators and nonmediators have identical brains c. Several cortical areas were thicker in the meditators’ brains than in the nonmeditators d. The meditators had less gray matter in regions associated with attention, emotion, and sensory processing