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Week 2 - History 181 American History 1800

by: Annie Modi

Week 2 - History 181 American History 1800 History 181

Marketplace > DePaul University > History > History 181 > Week 2 History 181 American History 1800
Annie Modi
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Beringia Paleolithic Archaic Olmec Zapotec Totonac Maya Mexica Toltec Topiltzin Quetzalcoatl Culhuacan Texcoco Tenochtitlan
Jay T. Nelson
Class Notes
Beringia Paleolithic Archaic Olmec Zapotec Totonac Maya Mexica Toltec Topiltzin Quetzalcoatl Culhuacan Texcoco Tenochtitlan




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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Annie Modi on Tuesday September 20, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to History 181 at DePaul University taught by Jay T. Nelson in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 2 views. For similar materials see UNITED STATES TO 1800 in History at DePaul University.

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Date Created: 09/20/16
Week  2  -­‐  HST  181  AMERICAN  HISTORY   9/15/16       Beringia     Paleolithic     Archaic     Olmec     Zapotec     Totonac     Maya     Mexica     Toltec     Topiltzin     Quetzalcoatl     Culhuacan     Texcoco     Tenochtitlan       America’s  Pre-­‐Contact  History   -­‐ Prehistory:  a  story  of  countless  generations  of  an  animal  passing  on  the  story     -­‐ Reconstruction  of  prehistory  is  historical  conjecture     -­‐ How  were  the  America’s  settled?   o Centuries  of  guest  work,  unfounded  theories  about  how  the   Americans  were  settled     o Native  Americans  –  a  new  race  of  people  or  the  descendants  of   Africans?  Also  a  lot  of  other  theories     o Earliest  people  to  populate  the  America’s  came  from  Asia  (15  to   30,000  people)     o Tip  of  South  America  –  a  well  used  campsite     o Recent  DNA  evidence  suggests  that  there  are  3  distinct  mutations  that   exist  in  Native  Americans     § This  DNA:  95-­‐98%  stems  from  Mongolia  and  Siberia     § The  remaining  2-­‐5%  is  deemed  to  be  European  DNA     o American  history  begins  with  these  early  arrivals     o American  history  begins  with  the  waves  of  human  migration     o The  land  that  the  US  sits  on  has  been  being  populated  for  thousands  of   years     o From  the  time  that  Natives  have  stepped  foot  on  out  land  until  the   United  States  has  been  around  .006%  of  the  time       Who  are  the  original  inhabitants  of  this  land?   -­‐ Wisconsin  Glaciation  Period     o During  this  period  enough  of  the  planets  water  was  actually  locked  up   in  ice,  that  it  lowered  the  oceans,  and  flooded  now  exposed  lands     o Bering  Strait  body  of  water     § This  was  exposed  during  this  period  and  was  not  straight  at  all,   it  was  Beringia,  in  which  you  could  literally  walk  across  it     § Could  be  about  1,000  miles  away  and  acted  as  a  bridge  that   connected  Asia  with  the  Americas,  this  is  what  provided  a  rare   opportunity  for  people  to  migrate,  animals  could  migrate  also     § Animals  would  have  been  the  first  ones  to  go  across  the  bridge   and  humans  followed  them  because  this  was  their  food     § When  Beringia  existed,  you  couldn’t  get  very  far   § It  was  ice,  and  it  receded  over  thousands  of  years     § People  lived  in  the  ice-­‐free  parts  of  Beringia     o Some  of  the  early  natives  of  America  put  their  feet  into  “boats”  and   started  navigating  down  the  water  ways  and  made  it  into  America   before  the  others     o These  natives  of  America  are  the  people  who  discovered  this  land     25,000  BCE  –  8,000  BCE  (Paleolithic  times)     -­‐ Big  game     o Mastodons,  wholly  mammoths,  which  were  found  right  here       5,000  BCE  –  1,000  BCE  (Archaic)   -­‐ Massive  middens  (garbage  heaths)     -­‐ People  expand  their  use  of  tools  (axes,  chisels,  fish  hooks,  harpoons,   hammers)     o Most  importantly  containers  (major  discovery)     § Denotes  the  fact  that  you  are  staying  in  the  same  place     § Gives  the  idea  of  ownership     § With  markings  on  them  –  ceremonialism,  language,  arts  and   culture   § People  begin  to  bury  dead  people     § We  see  ornamentation  on  dead  bodies     § Leads  us  to  believe  that  there  were  rituals  involved  in  this   -­‐ A  geographic  split  that  can  now  be  seen  in  North  America  –  the  Mississippi   River     o The  woodlands  East  of  the  Mississippi  was  very  highly  populated     o West  of  the  Mississippi  were  not  as  heavily  populated     § Many  that  went  west  continued  to  migrate     § This  split  makes  it  change  to  the  Eastern  and  Western  history     o East  would  end  up  moving  on  to  form  what  would  become  Nuclear   America     § Will  finally  see  the  rise  of  the  most  complex  civilizations  on   Earth  and  in  America     § Roots  are  set  across  these  lands     § As  roots  began  to  be  set,  it  is  apparent  that  there  is  no  such   thing  singular  Native  American  history  (culture,  past,   language,  people)     § By  this  time  the  necessary  ingredients  for  growths  of  society     • 1.  Fire     • 2.  The  beginnings  and  spread  of  agriculture     o In  north  America  the  basics  for  most  of  their   diets     • 3.  Sedentary  existence     o Where  agriculture  grows,  people  will  settle   down     • 4.  Institutions  arise     o Once  you  are  settled  in,  things  such  as   government,  religion  arise  so  there  is  some  type   of  control  over  all  of  the  people     • 5.  Highly  refined  arts  and  crafts     o The  hallmark  of  civilization  because  it  leaves   behind  the  idea  that  your  existence  needs  to  be   codified  and  put  out  there  for  others       Nuclear  America  (Olmec  à  Zapotec  à  Totonac  à  Maya  à  Mexica  (Aztec))     -­‐ All  of  these  groups  come  from  the  Olmec       Mayan  (300-­‐900  CE)     -­‐ Became  one  of  the  most  thriving  civilizations  in  the  world     -­‐ The  ruins  of  the  Mayans     o Wealthiest  group  up  to  this  point     o Very  organized     o Built  massive  centers  of  religion     § Gigantic  pyramids,  mostly  out  of  stone     o Build  scientific  observatories     § Obsessed  with  the  stars     o Built  large  courts  for  ceremonial  games     o Rich  in  literature  and  history     § Very  accomplished  in  astrology  and  math     § Mayans  understood  the  concept  of  0     § Astrology  allowed  to  let  them  make  and  use  an  accurate   calendar     § Used  paper   o Built  aqueducts     o Street  cleaning,  legal  systems     -­‐ We  know  most  of  this  because  of  the  frescoes  and  art  that  they  have  left   behind     o Scenes  of  a  lot  of  blood  drawing     o Blood  from  the  highest  up  in  society  that  were  offered     -­‐ Fighting  was  usually  for  trade  routes     -­‐ Famous  for  building  some  of  the  fastest  canoes  that  would  carry  about  25   rowers     -­‐ In  1502,  one  of  the  last  remaining  Mayan  states  (Mayapan)  encountered  a   group  of  strangers  in  the  Gulf  of  Honduras     -­‐ Massive  Mayan  culture  faded  from  history     o Why?  We  don’t  know.     o But,  we  do  know  that  one  of  the  leaders  in  the  Toltec,  named   Topiltzin,  in  980  took  a  new  name  of  Quetzalcoatl  (who  was  a  God   credited  for  bringing  maize),  and  then  they  started  to  favor   Tezcatlipoca  and  say  they  banished  Quetzalcoatl  who  according  to   legends  came  back  600  years  later       Mexica  (The  Aztec)     -­‐ Migrated  to  central  Mexico  from  today’s  US     -­‐ Arrived  in  1168     -­‐ Mexica  were  mercenaries     -­‐ Travelling  warrior  class  (rented  by  rulers  to  keep  their  people  in  line)     -­‐ By  1300  they  are  settled  under  the  rule  of  Culhuacan     o In  1323  they  want  to  honor  him     o Want  him  to  bring  his  daughter  whom  they  were  going  to  make  a  God     o Have  a  big  feast  and  a  Mexica  priest  walks  out  to  greet  him  and  he  is   wearing  his  daughter’s  skin  –  they  have  sacrificed  her     o The  king  and  the  people  are  terrified     o When  they  leave  they  see  an  Eagle  holding  a  snake  in  his  talons  and   that  is  where  they  decide  to  settle  (on  a  lake)     § Lake  Texcoco     § One  of  these  would  grow  to  become  the  largest  city  in  the   world  (Tenochtitlan  –  Mexico  City  today)      


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