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BIOM 360 Week 2 Notes

by: Bronwyn

BIOM 360 Week 2 Notes BIOM 360-001


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About this Document

Lecture notes from 9/12 - 9/16
General Microbiology
Seth Walk
Class Notes
Organic Chemistry
25 ?




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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Bronwyn on Tuesday September 20, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to BIOM 360-001 at Montana State University taught by Seth Walk in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 12 views. For similar materials see General Microbiology in Microbiology at Montana State University.

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Date Created: 09/20/16
● Eukarya   ○ Microorganisms  ■ protists/fungi, pathogens, extremophiles  ○ ***Table 5.1***  ○ Common features  ■ Membrane bound nuclei and organelles  ■ Intracytoplasmic membrane serves as transport  ■ More complex and larger than bacteria/archaea  ○ Cell envelope  ■ Plasma membrane ­ lipid bilayer w/ ester linkages  ■ Lipid ­ phosphoglycerides, sphingolipids, cholesterol    9/7:  ○ Cytoplasm  ■ Cytosol  ■ Cytoskeleton  ■ Organelles  ● Endoplasmic reticulum (ER)  ○ Cell membrane/lipid synthesis = smooth ER  ○ Rough ER = attached ribosomes; protein synthesis  ● Golgi Apparatus  ○ Secretes materials from rough ER  ● Lysosomes  ○ Intracellular digestion  ○ Acidic environment from pumping in e​ (costs energy)  ● Genetic control  ○ Nucleus  ■ Double membrane bound  ■ Transcription  ○ Ribosomes  ■ Attached to rough ER or free in cytoplasm  ■ Proteins made in rough ER are often secreted  ● Energy conservation  ○ Mitochondria  ■ Endosymbiotic hypothesis ­ mitochondria and  chloroplasts may have evolved from bacteria cells  in eukaryotic ancestor cells  ■ Powerhouse of the cell  ■ Tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle  ■ Generates ATP  ■ Binary fission  ■ Structure  ● Enclosed matrix w/ ribosomes and circular  DNA and enzymes for TCA cycle and fatty  acid catabolism  ○ Chloroplasts  ■ In most plants/algae  ■ CO​  fixation  2​ ■ Has double membrane  ■ Structure  ● Thylakoids stacked in grana  ● Site of light rxns  ● Stroma  ○ Other features  ■ Flagella and cilia  ● Archaea vs Bacteria vs Eukarya  ○ ***Table 5.2***  ○ Differences  ■ Euk has nucleus and more complex  ■ Size  ■ Meiosis vs mitosis  ○ Unity  ■ Biochem processes  ■ Metabolic pathways  ■ Genetic code  ● Acellular Agents  ○ Viruses  ■ Cause of disease, use for therapy, new viruses emerging  ■ Evolutionary importance ­ bacteria/archaea gene transfer  ■ Model systems  ■ Properties  ● Complete virus particle = virion  ● 1+ DNA/RNA molecule in a protein coat  ● Can’t replicate independently  ● Can exist extracellularly  ■ Infect all cells  ● Bacteriophages = bacterial virus  ● Archaeal viruses  ● Eukaryotic viruses  ● Classified by genome, life cycle, morphology, genetics  ■ Structure  ● Small  ● Nucleocapsid = nucleic acid + protein coat  ○ Capsid  ■ Large macromolecular structure = protein  ■ Protect viral genetic info  ● Viral envelope = membranous layer from host cell  ○ Proteins = viral DNA/RNA  ■ Attachment to host cell  ● Virion enzymes  ■ Genomes  ■ Multiplication  ● Depends on structure  ● Steps  ○ Attach to host cell (ligand [viral] binds receptor [host])  ■ Host receptor determines virus preference  ■ May be specific tissue or multiple hosts  ○ Viral entry  ■ enveloped  ● Fusion of viral envelope w/ host membrane  ● Endocytosis in vesicle  ■ Nonenveloped  ● Endocytosis w/ nucleic acid injection    9/9:  ○ Synthesis  ■ dsDNA virus ­­ uses host mechanisms to replicate  ■ RNA virus ­­ must have/make proteins to complete  synthesis  ○ Release  ■ Nonenveloped ­­ replicate and lyse host cell  ■ Enveloped ­­ buds off  ■ Infections  ● Virulent phage  ● Temperate viruses  ○ Lysogenic ­ changes host phenotype  ■ Phage is viable  ■ Multiple of infection  ■ Cultivation in living host for replication  ■ Quantification  ● Concentration  ● Microbial growth  ○ Binary fission  ■ Bacterial cell cycle  ● Replication and partitioning of DNA  ○ Origin of replication (replisome) → terminus (opposite the  origin)  ● Cytokinesis  ○ Environmental Factors  ■ Most live in moderations  ■ Extremophiles ­ adapted to harsh conditions  ● ***Table 7.2***  ● Solutes  ○ Change in osmotic concentration  ○ Hypotonic ­ low osmotic concentration ­ 2​ O enters, cell  bursts  ○ Water activity ­ amount of 2​ O available ­ change  interaction w/ osmotic effect  ○ Microbe adaptation  ■ Channels in plasma membrane allow solutes to  leave  ○ Halophiles ­ grow in salt concentration over 0.2M  ■ Extreme halophiles ­ grow in salt 2M­6.2M  ■ Balance charges w/ K  ■ Need salt to function  ● pH  ○ Measure of relative solution acidity  +​ ○ ­log(H​  concentration)  ○ Acidophiles ­ pH <0­5.5>  ○ Neutrophiles ­ pH <5.5­8>  ○ Alkaliphiles ­ pH <8­11.5>  ○ Microbes  ■ Internal pH near neutral  ■ Balance charge w/ K  ■ Pump out H​   ■ Proteins protect from acid and heat shock  ● Temperature  ○ Internal temp can’t be regulated  o​ ○ Psychrophiles ­ 0­20​ C  ○ Mesophiles ­ 20­45​ C  o​ ○ Thermophiles ­ 55­85​ C  ○ Hyperthermophiles ­ 85­113​ C  ○ Protein structure is stabilized (H bonding, proline,  chaperones, histones)  ○ Membranes stabilized (complex lipids, ether links)  ● O2   ○ Aerobe ­ grows in 21% O​2  ○ Obligate aerobe ­ needs O​2  ○ Anaerobe ­ no O​   2 ○ Obligate anaerobe ­ cannot use O​2  ○ Microaerophile ­ 2­10% O​ 2  ○ Facultative anaerobes ­ don’t need, but can use O2  ○ Aerotolerant ­ grow w/ or w/o O2   ○ O​2​can produce toxic species and aerobes can produce  enzymes to lower ROS concentration  ● Pressure  ○ Barotolerant ­ can live in high pressure  ○ Barophilic ­ live in increased pressure 


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