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Week 3, Chapter 3 notes

by: Annika Verburg

Week 3, Chapter 3 notes Chem 113.01

Annika Verburg

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About this Document

These notes cover some of what is on the unit 1 exam.
Introductory Chemistry
Dr. Aaron Robinson
Class Notes




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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Annika Verburg on Tuesday September 20, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Chem 113.01 at Abilene Christian University taught by Dr. Aaron Robinson in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 5 views. For similar materials see Introductory Chemistry in Chemistry at Abilene Christian University.


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Date Created: 09/20/16
Chapter 3 –Matter and Energy Classification of Matter  It is useful to classify matter into types. There are two main types and two subtypes within each. o Pure substances- made of one material, either all one element or all one compound  Elements – made of one kind of atom  EX: He (only helium atoms present)  EX: N 2only nitrogen atoms present, but bonded together to make diatomic molecules)  EX: S 8only sulfur atoms present, but bonded into rings of 8 sulfur atoms) o Compounds – made of two or more kind of atoms bonded together into molecules of the substance  EX: H 2 (only H O2molecules; made of H and O atoms bonded into a new substance)  EX: H 2 (2nly hydrogen peroxide molecules; also made of hydrogen and oxygen bonded, but in a different ration, so it is a different substance than water)  EX: NaHCO (b3king soda; four types of atoms bonded together to make one new substance) o Mixtures – made of two or more pure substances mixed either completely or partially  Homogeneous – two or more substances mixed completely so that properties are the same throughout.  EX: sugar (C 12O22 i11water (no precipitate)  EX: gasoline is mixture of many hundreds of compounds, each made of carbon and hydrogen  Heterogeneous – Two or more substances incompletely mixed so that properties differ throughout.  EX: oil and water  EX: salt and sand o To summarize, there are 4 types of matter:  Elements, compounds, homogeneous mixtures, heterogeneous mixtures  The first 2 are pure; the second are mixtures (of pure substances) States and Properties of Matter  Physical states of matter; solid, liquid, gas  Physical properties- can be observed or measured without changing the identity of the substance o Ex: Melting point, boiling point, color, mass, luster, etc.  Physical Change – changes that occur without changing the identity of the substance o Ex: melting point, freezing, boiling, condensing, evaporating, sublimation, deposition  Chemical properties – the ways in which a substance tends to react to form other substances o Ex: Carbon burns in oxygen to make carbon dioxide; hydrochloric acid reacts with proteins to break them down into amino acids  Chemical Change – changes that result in new substances; chemical bonds are broken and made and new substances are formed. o Ex: hydrogen and oxygen gases react to form water 2H 2g) + O (2) -> 2H O 2l)  EX: Describe each as a physical change or chemical change o Wood is burned in a campfire -> chemical change o Chocolate melts ->physical change o An egg is fried -> chemical change Temperature  Temperature is proportional to the average KE of the molecules in a system.  There are three main temperature scales o o o o Fahrenheit: Water freezes at 32 F, boils at 212 F (180 F difference) o Celsius: Water freezes at 0 C, boils at 100 C (100 C difference) o Kelvin: Water freozes at 273 K, bools at 373 K (100K difference) o There are 180 F for every 100 C or 100 K (F degrees are smaller than C degrees or Kelvins)  These scales are related by the following equations o T =F1.8 T +3C o T =C1/1.8 (T – F2) o T = T + 273 K C Energy  Kinetic and Potential Energy o KE- energy of motion  Heat- random KE of molecules, also called Thermal Energy (main type of energy in this chapter)  Work- directional KE; often a force acting through a distance EX: a movable piston in a cylinder o PE- stored energy (potential) Units of Energy  Joules (J) and kilojoules (kJ) o The joule is the standard unit of energy; about one human heartbeat o One kJ = 1000 J  Calories (cal) and kilocalories (Cal) o Older units, but still widely used o One cal = 4.184 J; one Cal = 4.184 kJ o Dietary calorie = a kilocalorie (Cal)  Examples o EX 3.4.1: The average human diet is about 2,000. Cal/day. What is this is kJ/day?  2000./ 1 day (4.184 kJ/ 1 Cal) = 8.368 * 10^3 kJ/ day o EX 3.4.2: Jogging burns about 500. Cal per hour. How long would a person have to jog to offset a 1,590. kJ piece of cheesecake?  ? hours 500. Cal/1 hour 1590. kJ 1590. kJ (1 Cal/4.184 kJ) (1 hour/ 500 Cal)= 7.60 * 10^-1 hr. (0.760 hr) Energy and Nutrition  Nutritional energy o The food we eat contains potential energy stored in the bonds of the molecules that make it up. When we digest and metabolize these food molecules, some of the energy is extracted and either used by the cells or stored for later use o Food energy is measured in kilocalories (kcal). The kcal is also called the Dietary Calorie (Cal). Sometimes kilojoules (kJ0 are used to express nutrional energy values as well. o 1 Cal = 1 kcal =1,000 cal 1 Cal = 4.184 kJ – 4.184 J  The energy in food is measured by use of calorimeter o Food is burned in the calorimeter and the heat produced heats water in the calorimeter. The more energy the food produces when burned, the more temperature rises. o You need to be able to do calculations using the caloric values of foods, as in this section. Typical Energy Values for the Three Food Types Food types kcal/g kJ/ g Carbohydrate 4 17 Fat 9 38 Protein 4 17  Energy Values for Foods o There are 3 types of energy-containing foods: carbohydrates, fats and proteins. Each furnishes a specific amount of energy when metabolized (always given in whole numbers)


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