Hist 1311 Week notes
Hist 1311 Week notes 1311
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This 25 page Class Notes was uploaded by ogclaystick on Tuesday September 20, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to 1311 at University of Texas at Arlington taught by Dr. Jonathan Abel in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 215 views.
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Date Created: 09/20/16
American History First Half Course Outline Dr. Jonathan Abel America before Europeans o 40,000 BC-AD 1492 o The Bering Strait and Migration Patterns o “Indians” Origins – Migrations took thousands of years from Siberia Families migrated for 20 miles through generations Name Controversy – Not known what to call them American Natives Native Indians o Tribal Societies and Conflicts Basic Tribal Structure Older experienced but not enough energy Parents have a balance Children more energy, no experience, began to move on to other valleys Larger Groupings Few 100 people Break away, too prosperous or not enough. Find valleys, tribes grow and move onto other valleys Inter-Tribal Conflict Clans/Tribes – Speak some version of the same language o Tribes changed, did not speak language had different gods o Constantly change like families, victorious tribes kill all men and keep children and women o Contact with Europe 1 contact occurred between 1,000 Radically different ideas of power Tribes- pick people who are successful in what they do (wars, farm) Maya came with the idea of abstract math / ZERO Very little metal in the Americas, never moved out of the stone age or learned metal working Vikings – 1,000 Scandinavia, Norway, Sweden Amphibian warfare societies Attack places from the oceans then loot or live there Ireland>Iceland>Greenland (900 AD)> Converted to Christian (stopped atacking) o Leif Ericson c Vikings made an effort to settle in the Americas Vinland – Abandoned 1050 o L’Anse aus Meadows – Viking Longhouse in Canada and USA o Landed planted, and kept exploring in the Americas o Left due to Native A fighting back (Barbarians) Spanish Explorers Unification of Spain – Alan De Lucien, Previously Muslin King (Ferdinand )and Queen(Isabella) – 1479-1504 Christopher Columbus 1452-1506 o Decided to ship West to India, China – Trade Market o Bahamas 1492 – 2 ndcontact Europeans and Indians o Made 3 other voyages, o The Effects of Contact Conquistadores Hernan Cortes o Defeated the Aztecs with nearby tribes Francisco Pizarro o Defeated weakened empires with technology (cannon) Americans assimilated into the Europeans Columbian Exchange Found mountains of gold Huge trade of food, staple crops o Life before trading, what the change created Americas did not have many large animals Horses introduced into the Americas, did not exist before Were very skilled and amongst the best fighters, wanted guns o Got them because they had a lot to trade for Disease Europeans bring diseases to the Americans o Main disease was smallpox, malaria, yellow fever, tropical diseases o 50% of the population wiped out in 3-400 years. o Syphilis killed Europeans , 25-35% o Did not go away after everything The Race for America o Technological Exploration Ship allow exploration of unknown countries o God Glory and Gold God – Most important at the time / Religion Christians job is to convert everyone Glory All other countries rules by monarchy – king rules everything (he is the state) No nation yet except for Dutch Republic, just kingdom Dynastic Glory – someone who settles a colony adds to the kingdom Ask a Colonist – Bring gospel to the Native Americans and bring glory to kingdom Gold Colonists here for gold that was just sitting around, colonies created for resources Spain doesn’t have much gold, conquers a place and takes it Explained reason why people went out to settle the Amricas Portugal Did not leave Europe to find new colonies Want to be able to trade with Asia and China Can trade by land but takes too long Can no longer trade across Europe because the trade that flows between Europe and Asia is controlled by the country sitting in the meeting point of all three countries. By the Ottoman Empire, Control a big chunk of area and trade through the area Have benefit of taxing all incoming trades 1450 – Ottomans cutoff Potuguese trade Prince Henry Finds a solution to trade by sailing around Africa Long trip around, possible route but not reliable due do dangers and length of time THIS INSPIRES OTHERS TO FOLLOW HENRY starts the age of exploration o Exploration and Colonization Age of Exploration European Competition Empire and Colonies Mercantilism – Gold Govts tended to be very poor Goal of a Mercantilist economy is to enrich the state, aka the ruling family To a Merch, become richer by amassing wealth in gold, silver copper o Very good way to make money Market Inequality – Control trade you can tax it, Nobles in charge of countries o Ways to become a noble You don’t work if you’re a noble Nobles use money for their armies Colonies are all about trade and extracting resources o Settlement Colony – Goal of a Mercantilist o Gold means renewable resources o After creating new markets, every country in new world did this Taxed everything on the way to its destination 2 versions of Merc o 1 Big State Version Have ability to create and control o Spanish Colonialism Best Colonizers in History during this period Best due to being brutal Move in, knock over whatever is in the country o Forcibly convert the natives to Catholicism o Then enslave them Get large pieces of land to farm o Able to do this due to being powerful o Need a Navy, use navy to pull ships over with inspectors whotax o Figured out the best system to settle the new world Spain most powerful country in the wothd for 200yrs o Starting in 1520 ,Chares the 5 was the archduke in Austria o Controlled about half of western Europe o Spain owns large chunk in the West Hemisphere by law (Pope) o Were able to control the best of the colonies, o Caribbean really valuable Catholic Church very centralized controlled by one man (Pope) o Controls the way they run their conlonies o Powers Spain for 200yrs o Dutch and French Enter the Game France Unified 1650, most populous country – Not poor Jacques Cartier o Does not sail south, Sail directly across Atlantic Ocean o Ends up in Canada 1630 – Samuel de Champlain explores Canada o Explores until instructed by King to settle colonies (10k colonies) o French become the 2 ndcolonial power New France - 1710 Make alliances with Indians Louisiana New Netherlands and New Sweden 1600 – Henry Hudson hired by Dutch to explore the Americas Lands in the Hudson River Capital city of New Amsterdam o Britain Comes Late Henry Hudson England no longer a great power English cannot afford to colonize, will eventually settle 13 colonies in the east coasr British Companies o Continental Politics Continental Rivalries New Spain is part of Spain Every decision made in Europe affects the collinies Fighting to achieve adgivini Colonies as Game Pieces Early Settlements o Sir Walter Raleigh Establish Roanoke Colony 1585 - 1590ish Supplies ships stop arriving after a few years. Last one to arrive saw the colony was abandoned Joined Croatoan indian tribe Model does not work Plant colonies by themselves and sustain them o Jamestown – established a little to the north or Roanoke (Pop. 300) 60 left after winter Problems Temperature varied very much Powhatan tribe – compete for food supply Winter 1609-10, Coldest winters on record (“Starving Time”) Made up of men who did not want to work and did not know how Can’t force workers to leave Solutions John Smith 1580-1631 - Explorer o Military Man o Disciplined colonists, specially thiefs o Kept getting into fights with the Powhatan Powhatan o Captured John Smith o Pocahontas saved John Smith, 1595-1617 Achievements of Jamestown st o 1 surviving permanent colony in the New world for the English o Colony become self-sustaining o Develop tobacco as a cash crop st o 1stystematic division of land – Headright system o 1 representative legislature in the New World The Virginia Company Created joint stock company (people join and share in its economy) Wanted to make money from Jamestown Colony. Goes bankrupt even after the success of the colony, colony set free John Rolfe – (Explorer 1585-1622) and Tobacco Tobacco grows everywhere. o Solution Virginia Tobacco, Grows well South American, not so well here Genetically modify both together Introduces method of curing(preserve) tobacco Gives colony a point, makes money Virginia Headrights system – new colonists are given land o Condition, must make land productive o Becomes system of land distribution and America law throughout the rest of the colonial period House of Burgesses – 1619 o Colonists want to elect their own leaders o Massachusetts o Mayflower – 4 week voyage Puritans Were religious but did not fit in Europe, ideas rejected Moved to the new world Leader: William Bladford Once they establish their colony Will live by their own set of rules and puritan belief Land 1620, Cape Cod then land on the Mainland Plymouth Colony Worked with what it takes to set up their colony Local Indians accepted them Inspire many other followers Massachusetts Bay Colony Less strict than the Plymouth Colonists Absorbs other colonies to become known as just Mass Colony o Protesting Protesters Roger Williams left in the Woods Founded Rhode Island with friends and local indiands Rhode Island Only colony where religious freedom actually exist Until Roger Williams dies Connecticut Pennsylvania William Penn is a Quaker 1644-1718 Pennsylvania Colony that bridges all other colonies o Southern Colonies George Calvert, Lord Baltimore settles the only Catholic colony in the new world Virginia Carolinas People fight with each other, break into two colonies North and Sout Georgia - 1732 James Oglehorpe Dutch take control of new Sweden, 1674 rename colonies of new York and New Jersey Early Colonial Period Slow and uneven process Many Failuers and false starts Different ideologies and backgrounds Cooperation and conflict with the Indiands Slow growth after 1650 ,then exploded Ultimately caught on because of mercantilism, and luck Settler Ideology o America Always a religious place 1520 – Series of Events (The Reformation) Only 1 kind of Christianity (Catholocism) No one questions the religion Religion is the basis of the political system o Protestant Reformation Martin Luther German Monk – PhD in Change after 1500 Started to become more interested in the problems of the church / wanted changes. Did not like the corruption of the church. Made money off the church. Everyone questioned the church. Luther questioned the beliefs of the church. Luther considered outlaw in 1520, he was not justified by the law. (they could rob him without a problem) An emperor shelters him. Luther’s ideas begin to spread. Protestantism o Rejection of Catholic teaching o Sola fide and sola scriptura Said that the Catholic church had no authority, truth only came in scripture. (sola scriptura) o Rejection of Catholic social and political structures o Individualism over Collectivism o Individual over Corporate Body Catholic church is the foundation of all society Only people who can read are business people, merchants and people who study the bible. Moving from corporatism to individualism. Problems with Luther o Wrote his ideas in alot of books o John Calvin – French lawyer Luther o Individualism o Individual interpretation and reading of scripture Predestinarianism o Calvin said that the people that were going to be saved (the elect) o Problems – o Practical – How do you know you’re a member of the elect? o Signs to know you’re in the elect. Covenant of Grace – Answered problem o Contacted by God o Would make a contract with their God to live a proper Christian life (Covenant of Grace). Saying they were predestined to be saved. o Once they agreed, they would be assured and would always be saved. Anti-episcopalianism – All people are equal o Want to create a truly egalitarian society (Problem with social structure) o Wrote all of the ideas of the protestant reformation, in a book. Protestant Reformation will lead to wars. o British Politics Henry VIII and the Church of England Henry needed an heir. Broke away from church, created the church of England. Country itself is protestant. Mary and Elizabeth Mary 1 – Ropressing protestant. Was Catholic. Elizabeth 1 – Opressed P o English Religion Church of England Puritans Non-separatists Separatists Presbyterians Minority Groups Quakers Methodists Etc… Puritan Ideology – Important to the creation of the colonies Religious freedom – oppressed all other religions Rugged individualism – took care of what needed to be done Hard Work – work religion and community, prefect colonists Religious and civic responsibility o John Winthrop 1587-1649 , Early Massachusetts Bay o Oliver Cromwell o Quakers All people are truly equal No preachers, all get together in meetings Women share everything in society o Rise of Puritanism John Winthrop and the City on a Hill Oliver Cromwell and the English Civil War o Religious Freedom Separatists vs. Non-Separatists o Puritan Legacy “Puritan” Protestant Work Ethic Work hard to improve community Education System Individualism Hard work, individual success. America is the city on the hill Colonial Conflicts o Less Britain messes with colonies. Less it will spend o Colonies are free to do what they want. They grow very quickly Become more important for Europeans politics. Excellent pieces to negotiate with. Rather give up a colony than a piece of homelast. Centuries past 1 contact. Several Indians have died. Still many past the Appalachian Mountains. o Indian Relations Iroquois Confederacy Loose association of Indian government Will manage to bring most of the colonies Indians under their control Their area is between the colonies and the mountains (Not owned by anyone.) o European Power Politics Balance of Power Spain, France, England Compete Iroquois remain in the middle. Help the weaker side in order to avoid being targeted if either side wins. o The Fur Trade Ohio Valley Become the Nexus of colonies based on where its located. It’s the gateway to a valuable resource. (Fur) French Fur Trading Able to make money off the Fur trade because they are the fashion designers for Europe. Make LOTS of money without spending much. Just pay the Indians to bring fur. 1500’s – England’s main rival is the Dutch republic. British navy is at the bottom of everyone else. Will eventually overcome the Dutch. Charles II – 1630-1685 King Of England 1660-1685 Went into hiding to France. o France he went to, most powerful. Louis WIV 1638-1715 (Le roi soleil) o Westward Expansion Border Disputes in the Old Northwest o European Wars o Louis XIV’s Wars Goal of 1 2 wars, control spain and dutch republic War of Devolution 1667-1668 Dutch War 1672-1678 o King Phillip’s War 1675-1676 BIG WARS War of the League of Augsburg 1689-1698 o King Williams War o France vs. The World (Europe) o Means Colonists might have to fight Ends in Draw, everyone bankrupt War of Spanish Succession 1701-1714 o Fight over who is going to be heir to the throne Louis won but Spain lost a lot o Queen Anneds War 1702-1713 – (William and Mary daughter) Colonies do fight now, Fight for queen against the French War of Austrian Succession James II 1633-1707 o King Of England 1685-1688 William III of Orange 165-1702 (Nemesis of France, King of England Spain, Dutch, Holy Roman England & Austria vs France and Prussia o 1 war where the colonists will fight for themselves. o Used to follow along with the British, weren’t soldiers – were militia o Bosto, Mass will call up the militia to help British. (Fought with Indians) Plan attack on new France. (Siege of Fort Louisbourg 1745) Want to control Shipping and trade crossing into Canada Colonists are ALL hunters, weapons o Militia needs Food, water transport Shoes, need ammunition Sets of clothes Massachusetts legislator learn to raise, equip, supply, maintain, and fund the militia on its own Colonists fought for their country. Provided Seven Years War o The Monongahela Colonel George Washington 1732-1799, Leader of Virginia Militia Virginia claims land all the way up to Canada and the Mississippi. Not known who killed him Washington captured, French build Fort Albany Congress, July 1754 End in Conflict 1774 - Jumonville – Diplomat Death of Jumonville, May 1754 Benjamin Franklin “If we don’t hang together, we will hang seperately” Snake flag is the flag of the Albany Plan Needed to create a Colonial Govt. Where an elected official from each company meets. Diplomatic Revolution o France o Russia o Spain o Russia o Prussia o England Hoping Prussia can hold out long enough in order to take all the colonies and take one. World War begins in North America o The First World War – 7 years war Edward Braddock 1695-1755 His job to drive the French out of the Area Washington follows behind Braddock to aid. Battle of the Monongahela 9 July, 1755 o Warned that battle tactics in America is different from Europe. o French win due to French allies, Braddock killed. Expedition disaster. Battle of Lake George 8 September, 1755 o Another British Army battles up north, Gets defeated. One successful campaign. o Deportation of the Acadians 1755-1764 st Worlds “1 “ Genocide Most sent to Louisiana o Frederick Best General of the entire 18 century. Destroy every larger item he faces, Does well over in Europe o Louis-Joseph de Montcalm, William Pitt 1708-1778 o Mastermind in the war effort, increase funds to Prussia o Sends a very large army to the Americas to conquer new France. o Retake previously conquered forts, pushing troops back. Annus Mirabilis, “Year of Miracles” 1759 o Will take India from French, conquer the seas from the French. Battle of the Plains of Abraham 13 Sept, 1759 o Montecalm and James Wolfe 1727-1759 British win and Quebec, Montreal will fall. British have won war in the new colonies. o “The Miracle of the House of Brandenburg” 1760- 1761 Prussia General, Frederick is defeated. Attacks from the back. Prussia not able to beat 3 superpowers. 1761, Russia switches sides due to son liking Prussia. o Power Shift Treaty of Paris 1763 Britain gives France and Spain most of their Colonies Back o Islands in the Caribbean, valuable to French, balance of war o France cedes New France to Britain o France keeps Atlantic fishing rights o Spain cedes Florida to Britain o Louisiana divided between Britain and Spain along the Mississippi River o Proclamation Line of 1763 Cannot go west of it. To pay back their allies, the Iroquois Colonists don’t like it. Indians control the land, don’t like the fact that non-white pstple are benefitting. 1 time in the American colonies, don’t like limits. The west is the Frontier. Want to expand. Definition of America, building and expanding. Like British until they control again. Britain Replaces France No French left in the Americas, closest in the Caribbean’s Legacy Colonists gain experience of European Warfare Brought together by shared struggle Colonies learn how to fund, prepare, and conduct a war French influence removed British influece Spain Regains Louisiana Ideological Origins of the Revolution – Skipped – LEC 9 o English Influences Absolute Monarchy vs. Constitutional Monarchy Original Monarchy invented to give king all the power Louis 14 – French created a govt system where the king ruled the state o An Absolute Monarchy No limits on the power of the monarchy Royal-Edict (Law made by king) Royal justice of the kingdom No implied or written limits on that kind of monarch Competition from other Nobles Louis comes up with ingenious invention, Absent from the system is money. Works against money How do you know someone is noble? A noble is someone who cannot work. You have people to work for you. Nobles fight most of the time. Kings realize they need money. Louis finds people that can manage money. Makes them his beurocrats, is then able to create his absolute monarchy. By enlarge, people wanted to be in an Absolute Monarchy. Decisions were made for them. Followed it because the gods made it that way. Peasants were not educated to think systematically. Just followed what everyone else said. They were subjects of the monarch. Many tried to copy this system. The French did it the best. England 1166-1216 King John, Civil war known as the Barons War o John could never get a handle on it. His nobles rose up against him for being a bad king. Nobles force home to sign a charter. The Magna Carta - 1215 o An agreement that the nobles have rights. Implies that there are limits on the king, does not have absolute power. Henry III – 1207-1272 Going to rely more and more on the advice of his friends and nobles. Needs counseling from his councils. Nobles have the right to advise the king. Edward I 1239-1307 Fights lots of wars, needs money to fight wars. People that have money are business people. Factories tend to be by the coast. People who have money live in the cities. Few in numbers. King can go to a bank OR he could invite the burgers (business people) o Eventually stop being generous, want power. They want to control the kingdoms money. o Burgers collect taxes for the king. Allow them to set up tax policies. o Nobles not happy about the burgers since they are commoners. o Get to the point where we they separate into different houses. Called the Model Parliament Takes entire interlining period Kings would call parliament a little bit only Commoners arguing that instead of writing edicts for the king, they are writing laws. Become a legislature, the king cannot take away those laws. Problem, place where rich people want to be. Want to be in charge of taxes. Everyone wants in to earn lots of money. House of common will run out of room. Instead of everyone going. You elect people as representatives. Embodies not just the wealthy but everyone in Parliament. Constitutional Monarchy There is no constitution, constantly changing it. Rights of Englishmen Freedom from repression o Voice/participation in government o People have right to voice in there government. Have the right to vote and be represented in the govt. o Right to ask the monarch to look at their case. Freedom of action and religion o Freedom to act and believe in what they think. o Still has a state religion. Freedom to seek individual profit o Gift of Protestantism, social, religious or political profit. People of England free to act as they choose. As long as it does not go with its constitution. The Development of Parliament – 9/19/16 Charles I 1600-1649 o No set constitution in England. Changing is at they go. o 1 English king killed by parliament (A military dictatorship) – ends on 1660 James II (Charles Brother Becomes King) o Was attractive but portrayed ugly because he was catholic. William ndd Mary o 2 time that parliament has overthrown the crown o Means the end in of the monarchy in England o House of commons takes over the legislative and executive branch John Locke and the Social Contract Wrote in response to the glorious revolution explaining why it happened, how It happened. Social Contract – written by john locke An unspoken system created by people when they interact with each other. People operate without being aware Logical step further – Works for all kinds of life. If natural law exists, governs interpersonal relationships. At the highest level of govt. The universe was not riled by capricious gods, but rather by reason and laws of nature Natural law dictated all personal relationships Natural law also dictates government o Rulers were also bound by reason and laws o Rulers had an obligation to treat their subjects well o If not, the subjects had the right to limit rulers or even to depose them Locke says if all of these are true, then a ruler who does not ruile by reason can be dealt with. The people ruled have a right to deal with the ruler and change their govt. Have an obligation Because of Englishmen, every man has an obligation to change their govt. o French Influences – France example of absolute monarchy Leading figures Voltaire 1694-1778 -Wit o Wealthiest man in France o Understood what happened in England. o Wanted france to have a govt that was like Englands. o Ideas Religion was very important Positive: Foundation of society, tool of social control. Society kept stable. Negative: Can be very easy to abuse. o Wants to bring the idea of liberte (civil rights), religion (positive and negative) to France. Montesquieu - Brain o Lawyer - Wrote book Spirit of the laws Describe in detail what a govt rules without reason. By definition, tyranny. Aligarchy – Capitalism Absolute Monarchy – Democracy – Tyranny of the republic (ruled by majority) o How a govt would look that doesn’t have tyranny English system lacking a division in the system To create a govt that had its branches separated Separate legislature that would make laws, monarch will enforce them Take the judiciary from the monarch, so they would balance each other Set a businesses of checks and balances o Jean -Jacques Rousseau Believed systems corrupted people Children given time to develop who they want to be. Invented concept of childhood. Said Monty was almost right. Expect for that Govt had to be rational Fundamental concept of the republic. o French Enlightenment Colonial Grievances o America, very literate society. Bringing ideas back. o According to revolutionaries “taxed without being represented” o Liberte – o Salutary Neglect o Pragmatism – real reason colonial revolution happened. People were losing money. Breakdown of Relations with Britain o Financial Difficulties in Britain War Debt Financed the colonies and the Prussian Empire Won Britain a great amount of territory Price paid, significant amount of national debt Navy Maintenance Need to constantly maintain navy, 30-50 ships during peacetime Always needs sailors, 2 yrs, 50% sailors die from scurvy (Starvation) Enforced Service (Impressment) o Don’t meet quota, will simply take men. Cant pay taxes, will be taken. Colonial Revenue British look at colonies o Colonies have become prosperous o Colonies have to pay back, British will greatly increase the taxes. Sharing the Burden o The Acts Early Acts Navigation Acts 1650-on, Britain will pass o Require anyone who wants to trade with a British to pass through a British port to tax them. Protective Tariffs Taxes meant to hurt someone else. Woolens Act 1699 – Cut off supply of Dutch Wool Molasses Act 1733 - Cut off supply of French Molasses. Post-1763 Stamp Act 1765 o British raised taxes everywhere o Stamp Act taxed everything on paper o Promote a reaction that shocked the British. People gathered to protest the Stamp Act, (Sons of Liberty) o Sons of Liberty – Claim to fight for liberty of the colonies Terrorist group Burned royal houses Tarred British officials Shocks both British and Colonists (Seen Republicans and Crazy people) Leader – Samuel Adams 1722-1803 o Stamp Act Congress, October 1765 Several colonies will send delegates to this congress Will talk about his issue, will do what Englishmen will do. Ask the government to stop. Stamp act will be repealed in Parliament. Stamp Act Congress will not last that long. o British ask the King George III 1738-1820 Is insane in certain time periods where he is not aware of the world Key player in the repeal of the Stamp Act. Declaratory Act 1766 o Parliament will pass a Declaratory Act 1766 Said they did not accept the argument of the colonists. Parliament had the right to tax the colonies however they wished. o Townshend Acts 1767 o Salutary Act Colonies do their thing, British leave them to it. Did not have the force or money to be a hands on power. Parli will pass new Acts Revenue through new taxes o Most will not go back to new England. Will be used to pay salaries of the colonial governors. o Trying to get the colonists realize that they are all on the same size. Wants the colonies to know that they are the reason the colonies have grown. Tea Act 1773 – raises large tariff on tea that this not from the EIC o Colonies boycott EIC tea. Buy other more expensive tea. Coercive/Intolerable Acts 1774 o Designed to beat the colonies into submission (Boston) o Military governor sent to Massachusetts (Institute Marshall law) o Troops sent to the colonies. Are “quatered” in homes o Patriot Response The Sons of Liberty Collective Action Boston Massacre o Boston Massacre March, 5 1770 Throw snow then Sons of Liberty start throwing rocks Generals said, Do not fire In the chaos, the soldiers hear “fire” Soldiers arrested and sent to court o John Adams 1735-1826 Believes soldiers have a right to a fair trial They must not be lynched Volunteers to be the defense lawyer for the soldiers They will acquitted of all charges Boston Tea Party December 16, 1773 o Lots of EIC ships full of tea. Sons of Liberty throw a costume party. Dump lots of tea into the harbor. Tea lost was a significant impact to the British Economy. o British function with trade functions. Govt hands control of certain areas to a private company. o They will operate in that govt to buy and selling goods. (The East india company). Becomes bankrupt soon, make some bad investments o The First Continental Congress – Sept 1774, May 1775 Congress meets to figure the problems out. Britain General arrives (Thomas Gage), sends out men to take care of other people. ASwell as the resistance in Concord Lexington and Concord Lexington o Militia gather at Lexington, o Someone fires, unknown, “shot heard around the world” o British easily win Condord o Lose in concord o Small skirmishes during the British march back and forth Second Continental Congress Alexander Hamilton, Benjamin Franklin Becomes a colonial govt, what Benji wanted Delegate from Virginia, named ThomasPaine proposes indepence. o Supported by Franklin o BY summer, committee of 5 draft a declaration of indepence. o Voted on a approved by the contritental congress. On July 2, 1776. o Now we have a war. Declaration of Independence War of American Independence o Advantages and Disadvantages o Patriot Defeats Early Defeats Washington and the American Army o The Turning Point Battle of Saratoga Enter the French Campaigns to Yorktown o Treaty of Paris 1783 Articles of Confederation o Confederacy o Problems Finance Unity Control o Successes Land Ordinance 1785 Northwest Ordinance 1787 o Failure Annapolis Convention Shays’ Rebellion Constitutional Convention Writing a Constitution o Convention of 1787 o Alexander Hamilton and James Madison o Disputes The New Jersey Plan vs. the Virginia Plan The Great Compromise Slavery and the Three-Fifths Compromise o Democracy? o Ratification Federalists and Anti-Federalists o The Bill of Rights 1790 The Rise of American Slavery o Origins o Conceptual Slavery o American Slavery Black African Slave Trade Indentured Servitude o Southern Plantation Culture Tobacco Cotton Rise of the Planter Class o Christianity and Slavery The Federalist Period o Questions o Creating the New Government Executive Branch George Washington Cabinet Legislative Branch Congress James Madison Creating the Judiciary Hamilton and the Government Fundamental Beliefs Economic Policy o Foreign Policy Issues British Recalcitrance French Revolution Election of 1796 o The Divisions Widen Federalists Jefferson and Madison Democratic-Republicans Political Parties Washington’s Isolationism o Federalism without Washington John Adams and Alexander Hamilton XYZ Affair Alien and Sedition Acts o Opposition Virginia and Kentucky Resolutions Compact Theory and Nullification o “Revolution of 1800” Election of 1800 Judiciary Act of 1801 “Midnight Judges” Jefferson and the Growing Nation o First Term Successes Marbury vs. Madison The Louisiana Purchase Lewis and Clark The Barbary Wars o The Bloom Off the Rose Adult, white, male property owners Election of 1804 Embargo Act of 1807 o Election of 1808 and Madison War of 1812 o Cassus belli o European Background Rise of Napoleon British Naval Domination o Conduct o Treaty of Ghent 1814 o Battle of New Orleans Rise of Nationalism o Economic Revolution o Geographic Revolution o Transportation Revolution o New Republicans o Henry Clay and the American System o Sectionalism? o McCulloch vs. Maryland Rise of Jackson o Florida o Return of Sectionalism Missouri Compromise Panic of 1819 o Election of 1824 o Bargain and Corruption o Split of the Democratic-Republican Party Age of Jackson o Background o Election of 1828 o Spoils System o Indian Removal o Nullification Crisis o Election of 1832 o Bank War o Van Buren and the Panic of 1837 Manifest Destiny o Election of 1840 o Tyler and the Whig Fiasco o Spain and Mexico o Texas Impresarios Disputes with Mexico Texas Revolution 1835-1836 Annexation Debate o Election of 1844 o Covered Wagono and Railroads o Oregon – “54 40’ or Fight” o Mexican-American War Frémont and California Taylor and the Battle of Buena Vista Winfield Scott’s Campaign Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo 1848 Legacy Stormclouds Gather o Eli Whitney and King Cotton o The Lives of Slaves o Development of Ideology Pro-Slavery Anti-Slavery The Rise of Abolitionism The 1850s o Wilmot Proviso o Popular Sovereignty o Election of 1848 o Crisis of 1850 o Compromise of 1850 o Election of 1852 Franklin Pierce and Jeff Davis o Uncle Tom’s Cabin o Kansas-Nebraska Act Stephen Douglass Bleeding Kansas Henry Ward Beecher and John Brown o Charles Sumner and Preston Brooks o Election of 1856 James Buchanan Solid South o Dred Scott Case o Abraham Lincoln Lincoln-Douglass Debates Outbreak of War o John Brown’s Raid o Election of 1860 o Secession o The Crittenden Compromise o Fort Sumter The Civil War o Opening Moves Lincoln and the Virginia Militia Second Wave of Secession The Confederate States of America Union Advantages and Disadvantages Confederate Advantages and Disadvantages Scott’s Anaconda Plan o 1860-1862 st 1 Manassas Peninsula Campaign Jackson’s Valley Campaign Shiloh Antietam Emancipation Proclamation Fredericksburg o 1863 Chancellorsville Vicksburg Gettysburg Chickamauga and Chattanooga o 1864 Grant and Lee in Virginia The Wilderness Spotsylvania Cold Harbor The Siege of Petersburg The Election of 1864 Sheridan’s Valley Campaign Sherman’s March o Ending the War Petersburg Sherman’s March Continues Appomattox Cost and Significance of the War Gettysburg Address
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