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Test 101 week one notes

by: Lili Kovács

Test 101 week one notes

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This 12 page Class Notes was uploaded by Lili Kovács on Tuesday September 20, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to at Minnesota State University - Mankato taught by in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 3 views.


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Date Created: 09/20/16
th Works from Lecture 8, Tuesday, October 13 , that might appear on the final: Fig. 15.24 Charles Sheeler Church Street El Precisonism 1920 Terms: -The Eight (Ashcan School) -Regionalism American art before the 1940s. The Eight (or Ashcan School)  First American Avant-Garde group  Formed in 1908, consisting of 8 artists, including Robert Henri, John Sloan, and William Glackens. Robert Henri (1865-1929)  Studied at the Pennsylvania Academy.  Henri and his friends showed works at a New York gallery in 1908 when the National Academy rejected their work for an exhibition. A critic called them “The Eight.” -“The Eight” also became known as the “Ash Can School.” Why? (because they were painting the ugly parts of society, backyards/alley ways of new York, trash…etc.) -Sloan is Dealing with social classes. John Sloan (part of Ashcan School) Also deals with light. -Photographer Stieglitz ran the Gallery “291” in New York from 1905-1917. -“291” showed works by the avant-garde, including Cubists and Dadaists. Charles Sheeler, Church Street El, 1920 -This painting is based on a still from the film Manhatta, done by Sheeler and Paul Strand in 1920 -Thomas Hart Benton left New York after painting this mural, returning his native Missouri. 1. -Regionalism: the theory or practice of regional rather than central systems of  administration or economic, cultural, or political affiliation:  Works from Lecture 9, October 20 that might appear on the final: Fig 16.8 Jackson Pollock Number 1, 1950 (Lavender Mist) Abstract Expressionism (Action Painting) 1950 Fig 16.20 Mark Rothko Rothko Chapel Abstract Expressionism (Color Field Painting) 1965-66 Fig 16.33 David Smith Cubi Abstract Expressionist sculpture 1964 Terms: -Regionalism -Action Painting -Color Field Painting -Grant Wood, American Gothic, 1930 -A very good example of Regionalism -Regionalism- staying local, celebrating American values, negative toward modern art, French styles, city life. -Grand Wood quote “It all constitutes not so much a revolt against French technique as against the adoption of the French mental attitude and the use of French subject matter in favor of an American way of looking at things, and utilization of the materials of our own American scene.” -Diego Rivera, Detroit Industry, 1932-33 -How does Social Realism differ from Regionalism? –social realism is much more about the worker, making products etc. whereas regionalism is much more of a celebration with agriculture and American values. Abstract Expressionism -In 1939 the art critic Clement Greenberg published an article called “Avant-Garde and Kitsch” -Norman Rockwell “Freedom from Want”, based on FDR’s speech on the 4 freedoms in America 1941 -Greenberg saw Social Realism and Regionalism as Kitsch. Only abstract art was free, not used for propaganda. By 1939, thanks in part to the “Hitler-Stalin” pact, even the art of Social Realism (associated with Russia and Communism), had lost favor among American artists, critics, and authors. -Avante Garde was just art for the sake of art not for propaganda. -Hofmann emphasized what he called “push and pull,” in which the paint creates spatial depth while being true to its “flatness”. -Greenberg in “Modernist Painting”: “Flatness, two-dimensionality, was the only condition painting shared with no other art, and so Modernist painting oriented itself to flatness as it did to nothing else. -Clement Greenberg was a student of Hoffman. (Hoffman=teacher) -In the 1930s Pollock had gone through Jungian psychoanalysis, in an attempt to heal his drinking problems. What does C.G. Jung focus on? -Pollock, Number 1, 1950 (Lavender Mist) -focuses on being inside the painting -paint dribbles -large hand strokes -Action painting coined by Harold Rosenberg. Pollock’s piece is an example of action painting or gestural painting. There is this idea of trying to become a part of the painting, being inside of it. All about having a relationship with the work being one with the work. -In 1942, Lee Krasner, a former student of Hofmann, introduces Hofmann to Jackson Pollock. -Pollock was influenced by Siqueiros and Navajo sand painting. (Navajo sand painting is horizontal, making work in sand and then it gets blown away) -He wants to express his feelings rather than illustrating them, thinks like Van Gough in a way -Interesting relationship between having control and not having control. He’s emphasizing that there is a lot of control and doesn’t want people to think his work is just messy. -Color Field painting- Rothko is associated with the “Color Field” part of Abstract Expressionism. -Mark Rothko studied at the Art Student League -Formed “The Ten” in 1935 with Adolph Gottlieb. Does the term “The Ten” remind you of anything? – The Eight also known as the Achkan School. The Ten is a very clear reference to the American Avante Garde group. -Mark Rothko wanted to create work that is religious in some way or spiritual. He wanted to create religious work without using religious symbols. -Emphasis on horizontal field -Regionalism is easy to understand unlike Avante Garde. -Good example of color field painting. (Rothko’s rectangle paintings) The forms and color express feelings, and are “true to the material” (as Greenberg would put it). -Rothko Chapel -Rothko was commissioned in 1964 by the Menils to paint work for this non- denominational chapel. -Trying to create a transcended feeling in the viewer in an abstract way. -Not supposed to be Christian (non-denominational) -Barnett Newman (another good example of color field) -Trying to say spiritual things in an abstract way. -Emphasis on a vertical field, calls it the zip. -David Smith Cubi (Abstract Expressionist sculpture) -Use a lot of tools and objects to create abstract sculptures. -Grew up in the American industry with tools and metals. -He wanted all his work to be in human scale. -David was influenced by the welded sculpture of Pablo Picasso. -David is interested in the process that was involved in making the works because he leaves some of the marks in his sculptures. -He plays around with placement with his sculptures in relation to each other. Works from LECTURE 10, November 3m that might appear on the FINAL: -Fig. 19.99 Robert Rauschenberg Monogram 1959 Neo Dada (Proto Pop Art) --Fig. 19.57 Andy Warhol Coca Cola Bottles 1962 Pop Art -Fig. 19.36 Roy Lichtenstein Big Painting No. 6 (Brush Stroke) Pop Art 1965 -Fig. 20.8 Morris Louis Kaf 1959-60 Abstraction in the 60’s (Post-Painterly Color Field Abstraction) -Fig. 20.46 Donald Judd Untitled 1965 Minimalism Terms: -Neo Dada -Post-painterly Colorfield Abstraction Neo-Dada tendencies in the U.S., leading to Pop Art Robert Rauschenberg Monogram 1959 Neo Data (Proto Pop Art) -Consist of a Goat -Used elements of everyday life in his work -Good example of a combine, combining painting and sculpture Robert Rauschenberg (1925-2008) -Grew up in Texas -Started going to Black Mountain College in 1948 -John Cage and Merce Cunningham taught at Black Mountain College -Cage taught that a composition can be made using everyday objects and chance operations. -Cage’s most famous musical piece is 4 minutes, 33 seconds Rauschenberg’s White Painting was used during a performance at Black Mountain College. Shadows were cast on the painting. -Rauschenberg says that he works in an area “between art and life.” -He called his assemblages COMBINES -Also very well known for his silk screening -Dada vs Neo Dada. Dada work is quite political. Neo Dada is a little less political. -Fascinated with abstract expressionism -John’s and Rauschenberg’s work is often discussed at Neo Data work. Pop Art -Can be looked as a reaction to art and life -Likes to make something hard into something soft -Oldenburg Lichtenstein, Eddie diptych -There is a reference to the technique of mass culture. -Roy Lichtenstein, Big Pianting #6, 1965 Andy Warhol, 2010 Coca Cola Bottles, 1962 -Calls his studio the “Factory” -Works like a machine -Did a series called the Disaster series. Lavender Disaster 1963 -Pop Art -Repeats a lot of images called seriality -work began as very illustrative and then turned into photographs Post-Painterly Color Field Abstraction -Good example is Helen Frankenthaler, Mountains and Sea, 1952 -A term used for an exhibition. Clement Greenberg was behind it. -Helen Frankenthaler was the first to “stain” her canvases. -The foreground and background became on. Morris Louis, Kaf, 1959 -Post painterly colorfield abstraction-means no brush strokes. -Artists like Frankenthaler and Morris Louis are “postpainterly” because they don’t rely on the gesture anymore. -Morris for example allows the paint to flow on his canvas. -These artists were associated with Clement Greenberg, who organized an exhibition called “Post-Painterly Color Field Abstraction” in 1964. Minimalism -Donald Judd published the article “Specific Objects” in 1965 -Judd questions the conventional separations into “painting” and “sculpture.” -Judd’s work goes beyond composition by using the idea of the repetition of “identical units.” Judd Untitled, 1964 -piece of minimalist sculpture -exact same form replicated over and over again -Has a machine made esthetic to it -Outside is brass and tops are plexi windows can see through it -Creates shadow and coloristic effect on wall - -Clement Greenberg discussed work by David Smith and work by Anthony Caro as “optical.” -Michael Fried, as student of Greenberg’s, wrote the Article. “Art and Objecthood” (1967), in which he argued that Minimalist sculptures were theatrical and not really art. Greenberg and Fried stressed the importance of the Autonomous object. -Robert Morris, Three L-Beams, 1964 -Their orientation, the placement within the environment is different. -The minimalists were interested not just in the optical elements of a work, but also in how the body relates to it. The idea that the body is extremely important for perception is called Gestalt Theory. -Michael Fried would call this theatrical -Minimalism questioned Greenbergian Modernism. th Works from lecture 11, November 10 , that might appear on the final -Fig. 22.20 Marina Abramovic and Ulay Rest Energy Body Art 1980 -Fig. 23.5 Eva Hesse Photo of Studio 1966 Process Art -Fig. 23.20 Walter de Maria Lightning Field 1970-77 Land Art Terms -Conceptual Art -Body Art Conceptual Art -Sol LeWitt: “The idea becomes a machine that makes the art” -Art in which the idea of the artist is more important than the actual object. Body art Marina Abramovic and Ulay Rest Energy 1980 -They were microphoned during the performance. -guy pointing arrow at girl, girl holding arrow. -heavy breathing. Process art -Art created primarily as a physical record of the creative process. -Eva Hesse -Born in Germany, 1936 -Family moved to NY -Returned to NY in 1965 -Starts working with latex -Eva Hesse Photo of Studio 1966 Process Art -Putting works next to each other -Seeing how they work together Land art -Walter de la Maria, Lightning Field, 1970-77 - Works from Lecture 12, November 17, that might appear on the FINAL: -Fig. 23.20 Walter de Maria Lightning Field 1970-77 Land Art -Fig. 22.32 Judith Chicago The Dinner Party Feminist Art 1974-79 -Fig. 24.26 Zaha Hadid Vitra Fire Station 1993 Postmodern Architecture (Deconstruction) Terms -Pattern and Decoration Movement -Neo-Expressionism Feminist Art Program (FAP) -Feminist Art Program was founded by Judy Chicago and Miriam Shapiro in 1972 at the California Institute of the Arts, in Valencia. -Womanhouse was an installation in Los Angeles, organized in 1971 in a house that was to be demolished. -The subtitle was eggs to breasts. Fig. 22.32 Judith Chicago The Dinner Party Feminist Art 1974-79 -The plates are in the shape of female genitalia, because according to Judith Chicago, that is what these women from different epochs and social classes shared: Being discriminated against because of their gender. -Caroline Herschel plate Herschel was a 19 century mathematician and scientist, whose accomplishments have been hidden behind Pattern and Decoration Movement -Group of “Pattern and Decoration Artists” was founded in 1976 by Miriam Schapiro and Robert Zakanitch. -Works often associated with women. -was interested and influenced by Islamic work, Celtic art, carpets, mosaics, wall paper. -Schapiro uses “low art,” or “crafts,” or “decorative arts” as her inspirations. She is questioning the hierarchy of “low art” and “high art”. Fig. 24.26 Zaha Hadid Vitra Fire Station 1993 Postmodern Architecture (Deconstruction) -Fig 24.40 Barbara Kruger Untitled (your gaze) 1981 Post modernism (Reconstruction) -Jeff Koons Michael Jackson and Bubbler 1988 Commodity Art Terms -Feminist Art -Postmodern Architecture Feminist Art -Judith Chichago: Dinner Party (Review) 1974-79 -All women showed was their gender -Alternative last supper -Pattern and decoration movement, pattern, orientation, needle, ceramic work, type of materials associated with women. Postmodern architecture -Not super-efficient -wants to incorporate elements of speed (vitra fire station) Barbara Kruger, Your Gaze Hits the Side of My Face, 1981 -Arnason uses the term appropriation -it is associated with deconstruction -Kruger used to work as a graphic designer for Mademoiselle magazine. -Original image was taken from a 1950’s photo magazine. Jeff Koons, Michael Jackson and Bubbles -Using this idea of low art -Not questioning mass culture, instead celebrates it -His work is not scary -He uses things that people are familiar with because he doesn’t want people to feel inferior to his art Works from Lecture 14, December 3 , that might appear on the FINAL: -Fig. 27.3 Shahzia Sikander Pleasure Pillars Global Art 2001 -Fig 27.26 Wodiczko Homeless Projection Contemporary Art 1987 Terms -Global Art -Jimmie Durham (*1940) Member of the Cherokee Nation -Questions the idea that there is an “authentic” Native American art -Creates his own artifacts, questions the way these artifacts were looked at by white people. -Shahzia Sikander (1969) -Born in Pakistan, trained as a miniaturist at the National College of Arts, Lahor. -Pleasure Pillars -“Physical, emotional, geographical, cultural and psychological boundaries among cultures exist. But, being an artist means pointing to the shifting nature of such boundaries.” -She wants to create a “thirds space”, an “interstitial” one (i.e. a space in between). -She plays with time, elements from hundreds of years ago and elements from modern times


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