The Hellenistic and Roman Empire's Lecture
The Hellenistic and Roman Empire's Lecture History 1210-002
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This 2 page Class Notes was uploaded by John Stephens on Tuesday September 20, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to History 1210-002 at Auburn University taught by Dr. Monique Laney in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 7 views. For similar materials see Tech & Civ I in History at Auburn University.
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Date Created: 09/20/16
9/19/16 The Hellenistic Period and Roman Empire: Ancient Greek Historical Periods: Archaic. Classical. Hellenistic. o Refers to the Helens, or Greeks. o Happened thanks to Alexander the Great, after the conquering of the Persian empire. o Alexander was from Macedonia. His father Phillip II transformed Macedonia from a backwards region, to a powerful Kingdom stretching through most of the Greece. o Alexander in just 11 years took all of the Persian empire and to the borders of India, the Himalayas, and Northeast Africa. o Alexander used surprise tactics, which allowed him to win most battles. o In order to control the vast territory, he had many Greek-style cities built in strategic locations. These cities usually included a theatre, and gymnasium. o Soon, these conquered lands were either Greek-speaking, or controlled by Greek-speaking leaders. o Forward thinking academies were also constructed. First forms of higher education. o The library of Alexandria. First diagrams of the universe, by Claudius, emerged. o Greek culture usually blended with the cultures of the conquered regions. One example, is Greco-Buddhist art, a synthesis of Greek and Buddhist art. o After Alexanders death, his leaders fought over control for the next 50 years. Eventually Alexandrian empire was broken up into different Kingdoms. Roman Imperial. o Pre-Republican Rome: Citizens overthrew the existing monarchy and established a Republic. o Republican Rome: Not a modern Republic, more of a Plutocracy. After returning from battle, generals were expected to retire. o Rome under the Emperors. Roman army was immense and intense. 9/19/16 For the United States to match the army of the romans, we would have to obtain a standing army 3 times the size of our current one. Several conquering commanders in a row threatened the govt. if they would not be allowed to continue fighting. At its height, the Roman empire expanded from Portugal to Persia, about half the size of the United States. Romans were Hellenized, but brought Latin and their own culture with it. o What is an Empire? Empire meant to wage war and to execute laws. Very large, but always formed out of previously separate units. Ethnic, cultural, religious diversity. Relies on being structured into dominant and non-dominant parts. Power is centralized in the core which controls the periphery. Rome was the core of the Roman Empire. Many empires used extreme violence to conquer surrounding lands. o Romans did not invent or innovate new technologies. Most of the time, they used existing technology and built them on a much larger scale. Fortified roads were borrowed from the Etruscans. All roads led to Rome. Romans perfected concrete. It could even set under water, allowed for the production of harbors. Rome brought water to its cities through aqueducts. The incoming water went only to centrally located areas. o The capital city was fairly clean and comfortable. o Core/Periphery – Control/Extraction. o During a period of political disruption, the Germanic tribes invaded the Empire, disrupting major trade routes. o The eastern roman empire remained strong for another 1,000 years. Its capital was moved to Byzantium and renamed Constantinople. 6
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