Drugs and Behavior Week 3 Notes
Drugs and Behavior Week 3 Notes 333
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Sarah Kincaid on Tuesday September 20, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to 333 at 1 MDSS-SGSLM-Langley AFB Advanced Education in General Dentistry 12 Months taught by Caine in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 62 views. For similar materials see Drugs and Behavior in Psychology at 1 MDSS-SGSLM-Langley AFB Advanced Education in General Dentistry 12 Months.
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Date Created: 09/20/16
Pharmacokinetics [drug] = drug concentration Therapeutic window = [drug] between side effect line and therapeutic effect line Side effect line = [drug] at which you will begin experiencing drug’s side effects; too high a dose & too high a [drug] in blood Therapeutic effect line = [drug] at which you will begin experiencing drug’s therapeutic effects To ensure your medication (drug) continues to work for several hours despite a duration period shorter than that take repeated doses. Therefore, if you have very serious pain, you are given a button to repeat injections every 15 min (or when the pain starts to come back) because it is too dangerous and too much work for a nurse to re-administer the iv every 15 minutes. Instead you get a permanent iv. Function of time and [drug] in blood shows absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion 4 things in pharmacokinetics 1. Absorption: movement of drug into bloodstream 2. Distribution: movement of drug from one part of body to another 3. Metabolism: drug metabolized/broken down by enzymes 4. Excretion: metabolized drug is excreted/exits body Pharmacokinetics pD = pharmacodynamics = dose effect curve pK = pharmacokinetics = time curve time zero = time of drug administration or ingestion Onset: how long for drug to start working Duration: how long does the drug continue working Half-life: time it takes for [drug] in blood by half; numerical value to estimate duration Drug Admin Onset + Duration = Time Course Half-life iv, inhalation* 3” 15’ Fastest onset, 5’ briefest duration sc, im, 3’ 40’ Medium, 30’ medium po 15’ 2 h Slowest onset, 2.5 h longest duration Key: ‘ = minute, “ = second, h = hour *only inhalation if drug vaporizes Blood Brain Barrier (BBB) - Series of spots around the brain with epithelial cells that allow molecules into brain - BBB is lipophilic and therefore highly lipophilic molecules can penetrate BBB very well o Ex. Cannabinoids are very lipophilic, so it stays in body for weeks and will be caught on drug tests - Traps molecules that o Are big o Have strong polarity (how well drugs can penetrate fat) o Are lipophobic Routes of drug administration: Parenteral routes (injection): second most common route of drug admin after po (oral) Intramuscular (im): most common parental route; almost instant relief – full relief in ~3 minutes Subcutaneous (sc): most common for veterinary medicine, not humans; lift skin up and inject drug parallel to arm/back/etc (bubbles up and dissipates) Intravenous (IV): only life or death situations, going into shock, need immediate treatment; risks of sepsis, HIV, other infections; use only sterile needles and one use each to reduce risks; works quickly because each heartbeat propels drug throughout body within three pumps (a few seconds) Non-parenteral routes: Oral (po): most common route o Swallowing pill o Drinking liquid o Benefits: safe (no risk of infection) & effective (don’t need pills as often because po has long duration) o Downsides: 1 pass metabolism Goes through GI tract (mouth throat esophagus stomach, etc) Pharmacokinetics Most blood vessels in the intestines, therefore minor absorption in stomach but most absorption in intestines. The problem with intestinal absorption: it’s the digestive system! You’re metabolizing and excreting some of the drug in stomach so you do not get all the drug in bloodstream by the time the intestines do the major absorption. this doesn’t happen with other routes of admin! Inhalation: through mouth bronchioles bloodstream; works similarly as iv if vaporizes o Cocaine hydrochloride does not vaporize. Thus you can’t snort it o However, crack vaporizes. You can smoke it but not snort it. Suppositories: in the anus, stay high for days!! Eye drops: Ocular canal absorbed into blood vessels bloodstream Transdermal: skin patch (e.g. nicotine patches) Insufflation: snorting, similar timeframe as sc and im
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