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BSCI 201: Anatomy & Physiology I Chapter 3 Notes- Part 2

by: mehrnazighani Notetaker

BSCI 201: Anatomy & Physiology I Chapter 3 Notes- Part 2 BSCI201

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Anatomy and physiology Chapter 3: cells
Human Anatomy and Physiology 1
Justicia Opoku-Edusei
Class Notes
anatomy, Physiology, Anatomyandphysiology, anatomy&physiology, Science, Biology, Chemistry, biochemistry, cells, tissues, Diffusion, Osmosis, cellmembranes, cellcommunication, Bio Concept/Controv
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by mehrnazighani Notetaker on Tuesday September 20, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to BSCI201 at University of Maryland - College Park taught by Justicia Opoku-Edusei in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 40 views.


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Date Created: 09/20/16
Anatomy & Physiology Chapter 3 Notes- Part 2 by Mehrnaz Ighani . Osmosis: movement of solvent across a selectively permeable membrane (Fig. 3.7d) ­ Water diffuses through plasma membranes: 1. Though the lipid bilayer 2. Through specific water channels called aquaporins (AQPs) . Osmolarity: measure of total concentration of solute particles . Water concentration varies with the number of solute particles because solute particles displace water molecules ­ When solute concentration increases, water concentration decreases and vice versa . Water moves from low solute concentration (high water conc.) to high solute concentration (low water conc.) . Equilibrium: same concentration of solutes and water on both sides with equal volume on both sides  When solutions of different osmolarity are separated by a membrane permeable to all molecules, both solutes and water cross membrane until equilibrium is reached. (Fig. 3.8a)  When solutions of different osmolarity are separated by a membrane that’s permeable only to water, osmosis will occur (Fig. 3.8b)  Same concentration of solutes and water on both sides with unequal volume . Movement of water causes pressures: 1. Hydrostatic pressure: pressure of water inside cell pushing on membrane 2. Osmotic pressure: tendency of water to move into cell by osmosis o High conc. of solutes in the cell leads to high osmotic pressure . Tonicity: ability of a solution to change the shape or tone of cells by altering the cells’ internal water volume (Fig. 3.9) 1. Isotonic solution: same osmolarity on both sides, volume remains unchanged . used to increase blood volume 2. Hypertonic solution: high osmolarity than inside of cell so water flows out of cell resulting in cell shrinking (crenation) . given to ed ematous (swollen) patients to pull water back into the blood 3. Hypotonic solution: low osmolarity than inside of cell so water flows into cell resulting in cell swelling which can lead to lysing (bursting) . given to patients who are experience dehydration such as diabetic ketoacidosis and hyperosmolar hyperglycemic state . Active processes: 1. Active transport 2. Vesicular transport . Both require ATP to move solutes across a plasma membrane because: 1. Solute is too large for channels 2. Solute is not lipid soluble 3. Solute is moving across its concentration gradient . Active transport: ­ Requires carrier proteins (solute pumps) . Bind specifically and reversibly with substance being moved . Some carriers transport more than one substance: 1. Antiporters: one substance into cell while transporting one substance out of cell 2. Symporters: 2 different substances moved in the same direction ­ Moves solutes against their concentration gradient (low to high) ­ 2 types: 1. Primary active transport: requires energy directly from ATP hydrolysis 2. Secondary active transport: required energy is obtained indirectly form ionic gradients created by primary active transport o Primary active transport: (Fig. 3.1) . energy from the hydrolysis of ATP causes change in shape of transport protein . shape change causes solutes (ions) bound to protein to be pumped across membrane . Ex. of pumps: Ca, H (proton). Na-K pumps . Na-K pump is the an antiporter pump that pumps Na out of cell and K back into cell using the Na-K ATPase enzyme . Present in all plasma membranes especially active in nerve and muscle cells . Na and K move down their concentration gradient . Maintains electrochemical gradients which involve both concentration and electrical charge of ions o Secondary active transport: (Fig. 3.10) . depends on ion gradient that was created by primary active transport system Energy stored in gradients is used indirectly to drive transport of other solutes  Low Na concentration is maintained inside of cell by Na-K pump which strengthens Na’s inward movement through diffusion  Na can drag other molecules with it as it flows into cell through carrier proteins (usually symporters) in the membrane  Some sugars, amino acids, and ions are transported into cell via secondary active transport . Vesicular transport: ­ Involves transport of large particles, macromolecules, and fluids across membrane in membranous sacs called vesicles ­ Requires ATP and includes endocytosis and exocytosis: 1. Endocytosis: transport into cell . 3 types of endocytosis: 1. Phagocytosis (cell eating) 2. Pinocytosis (cell drinking) 3. Cell-mediated endocytosis 2. Exocytosis: transport out of cell ­ Transcytosis: transport into, across, and then out of cell ­ Vesicular trafficking: transport from one area or organelle in cell to another ­ Endocytosis: (Fig. 3.11) . involves formation of protein coated vesicles . it is a very selective process b/c substances being pulled in must be able to bind to its unique receptor . some pathogens are capable of hijacking receptors in order to enter the cell . once vesicle is pulled inside cell, it may: 1. Fuse with lysosome 2. Undergo transcytosis o Phagocytosis: . membrane projections called pseudopods form and flow around solid particles that are being engulfed . formed vesicle is called a phagosome . used by macrophages and WBCs . phagocytic cells move by amoeboid motion where cytoplasm flows into temporarily extensions that allow cell to creep (Fig. 3.12a) o Pinocytosis: (Fig. 3.12b) . plasma membrane enfolds, bringing extracellular fluid and dissolved solutes inside cell (fuses with endosome) . routine and nonselective . main way of nutrient absorption . membrane components are recycled back to the membrane o Cell-mediated endocytosis: (Fig. 3.12c) . involves endocytosis ns transcytosis of specific molecules . many cells have receptors embedded in clathrin-coated pits which will be internalized along with the specific molecule bound  Ex. enzymes, LDLs, iron, and insulin . Toxins may be taken into a cell this way . Caveolae: similar pits and different protein coat from clathrin, but still capture s specific molecules and use transcytosis (Ex. folic acid) ­ Exocytosis: (Fig. 3.13a) . material ejected from the cell . activated by cell surface signals or changes in membrane voltage . substances are ejected in enclosed secretory vesicles . Protein on vesicle called v-SNARE finds and hooks up to target t- SNARE proteins on the membrane . some subs. exocytosed: hormones, neurotransmitters, mucus, cellular waste . Resting membrane potential (RMP): ­ Electrical potential energy produced by separation of oppositely charged particles across plasma membrane in all cells . difference in electrical charge between 2 points is called voltage ­ Voltage occurs only at membrane surfaces . rest of cell and extracellular fluid are neutral . membrane voltages range from -50 to -100 mV (inside of cell is more – relative to outside of cell) . NOTE: potassium ion is the key player in RMP (Fig. 3.14) . K diffuses out of cell through K leakage channels down its conc. gradient . negatively charged proteins can’t leave as a result so cytoplasmic side of cell membrane becomes more negative . K is then pulled back by the more – interior b/c of its electrical gradient . when the drive for K to leave the cell is balanced by its drive to stay, RMP is established . most cells have an RMP around -90 mV . electrochemical gradient of K sets RMP . Na also affects RMP b/c Na is attracted to inside of the cell due to negative charge . if Na enters the cell. It can bring up RMP to -70 mV . membrane is more permeable to K than Na so K is the primary influence on RMP . Cl doesn’t influence RMP b/c its conc. and electrical gradients are balanced . RMP is maintained through action of the Na-K pump which ejects 3 Na out of the cell and brings 2 K back inside . rate of active pumping of Na out of the cell = the rate of Na diffusion into the cell And that’s how steady state is maintained . neuron and muscle cells upset this steady state RMP by intentionally opening gated Na and K channels . Cells interact with their environment by responding directly to other cells or indirectly to extracellular chemicals . Cell interactions always involve glycocalyx ­ Cell adhesion molecules (CAMs) ­ Plasma membrane receptors Works Cited Lindsey, Jerri K., Katja Hoehn, and Elaine Nicpon Marieb. Human Anatomy & Physiology, 9th Edition Elaine N. Marieb, Katja Hoehn. Boston, MA: Pearson, 2013. Print.


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