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Part 1 Chapter 3 notes

by: Gabby Goodell

Part 1 Chapter 3 notes BIOH 112 - 01

Gabby Goodell
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Human Form and Function I
Heather Dawn Labbe (P)
Class Notes




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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Gabby Goodell on Tuesday September 20, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to BIOH 112 - 01 at University of Montana taught by Heather Dawn Labbe (P) in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 14 views. For similar materials see Human Form and Function I in Anatomy and Physiology at University of Montana.

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Date Created: 09/20/16
PART 1 OF CHAPTER 3 Bio Chapter 3 Notes Cell Theory  Basic structural and functional unit of life.  Organismal activity depends on individual and collective activity of cells  Biochemical activities of cells are dictated by subcellular structure  Continuity of life has a cellular basis.  Cellular biology is the study of cellular structure and function. General Cell Structure  3 main parts o Plasma membrane o Cytoplasm  Organelles  Cytosol o The Nucleus The Plasma Membrane  Separates intracellular fluids from extracellular fluids  Plays a dynamic role in cellular activity  Selective barrier that regulates flor of materials into and out of a cell  Plays a key role in communication between cell and external environment Fluid Mosaic Model  Double bilayer “sea” of lipids with imbedded, dispersed proteins  Bilayer consists of: o Phospholipids (lipid with bound phosphate) o Cholesterols (Steroid with bound hydroxyl group OH-) o Glycolipids (Lipid with bound carbohydrate) Phospholipid Components  Hydrophilic “head” o Polar phosphorus o Faces extracellular fluid or cytosol  Hydrophobic “tails” o Two nonpolar fatty acid tails o Orient toward each other in middle of membrane bilayer o Form nonpolar core  Allows passage of lipid soluble molecules  Acts as a barrier to charged and polar molecules Cholesterol Components  Only hydroxyl group is polar o Forms of hydrogen bonds with head of phospholipids and glycolipids  Majority of molecule is non-polar o Steroid rings o Hydrocarbon tail o Nonpolar regions fit among fatty acids of phospholipids- orient away from water o Provides stability at normal body temp. o At low temps. It increases membrane fluidity Glycolipid Portion  Carbohydrate group is hydrophilic  Lipid portion hydrophilic  Appear only in the layer that faces extracellular fluid  One reason two layers are asymmetric Membrane Proteins  Categorized as internal or peripheral o Integral- proteins are firmly embedded  Most are transmembrane o Peripheral- proteins are more loosely associated with membrane  With polar heads of membrane lipids  Of with transmembrane proteins  Can be at inner or outer layer Glycoproteins  Membrane protein with a carbohydrate group attached o Carbohydrate part on extracellular surface only o Part of the surface coating of cells called the glycocalyx  Sugar protein of glycolipids and glycoprotein  Acts like molecular “signature” for cell-to-cell recognition  Also enables cell attachment Membrane Protein Functions  Ion channels- pores for specific ions  Carriers- Selectively more polar molecules  Receptors- bind specific ligand chemicals  Enzymes- Catalyze specific reasons on inside of outside of membrane.  Linkers- anchor neighboring cells or protein filaments inside or outside membrane  Cell- identity markers- cell to cell recognition during tissue formation or respond to foreign cells. Membrane Junctions  Tight Junction- impermeable junction the encircles the cell  Desmosome- anchoring junction scatted along the sides of cells  Gap Junction- a nexus that allows chemical substances to pass between cells. Membrane Characteristics Membrane fluidity o Lipids and proteins rotate or move within bilayer o Allows cell movement, growth, division, secretion, cell junction formation, and self-heal if punctured Selective membrane permeability o Lipid bilayer permeable too nonpolar, unchanged molecules with cross membrane easily o Only protein channels and carriers present allow specific polar or charged molecules to cross. Gradients Across the Membrane  Concentration- difference in the concentration of a chemical from one place to another  Electrical- different charged ions crate differences in electrical charges across the plasma membrane. o Charge difference is the membrane potential  The combined influence of the concentration gradient and the electrical gradient is termed the electrochemical gradient Transport Across the Plasma Membrane Critical to life of cell o Substances move into support cell metabolism o Cell products of wastes move out of cell Passive processes o Substances move from high to low concentration of electrical gradient o Use kinetic energy of molecules Active processes o Transmembrane proteins- also show specificity o Can be always left on- or be grated and controlled Passive Membrane Transport: Diffusion Simple diffusion o Non- polar, lipid soluble diffuse across lipid bi-layer Facilitated diffusion o Transport of glucose, amino acids, and ions o Transported substances bind carrier proteins or pass through protein channels. Passive Membrane Transport- Facilitated Diffusion Carriers o Are integral transmembrane proteins o Show specificity of certain polar molecules including sugars and amino acids. Channels o Transmembrane proteins- also show specificity o Can be always left on or be grated and controlled. Factors that Influence Diffusion  Steepness of the gradient o Steeper- faster  Temperature o Hotter = more kinetic energy  Mass of diffusing substance o Larger particles move slower  Surface area o More area = faster diffusion  Diffusion distance o Longer distance = slower diffusion Diffusion through the Lipid Bilayer  Nonpolar, hydrophobic molecules move freely through bilayer o Oxygen, carbon dioxide, nitrogen gases, fatty acids, steroids, fat soluble vitamins  Recall the very small unchanged polar molecules can also move o Water, small alcohols and urea  Important for life processes such as nutrient, waste, and gas exchange. Passive Membrane Transport: Osmosis  Movement of water through a selectively permeable membrane  Water molecules move from high to low water concentration gradient  Only occurs when membrane is permeable to certain solutes Osmosis Hydrostatic pressure o Pressure exerted by water against the “wall of its container” Osmotic pressure o Pressure exerted by solution with impermeable solute opposes hydrostatic pressure- highly concentrated solutions have high osmotic pressure.  Equilibrium reached when movement of water across membrane due to hydrostatic and osmotic pressure is balanced. Tonicity  Measure of a solutions ability to change the cytosol volume of cells by osmosis o Isotonic solution  Balanced solute extracellular and cytosol  Cell maintains shape and volume o Hypotonic Solution  Less solutes extracellular than in cytosol  Cell swells as water enters, cell may undergo lysis o Hypertonic Solution  More solutes, extracellular than in cytosol  Cell shrinks, cell may undergo crenation Interventions  Most intervenors solutions are isotonic  When might a hypertonic solution be infused? o Mannitol in solution is sometimes used to treat cerebral edema  When might a hypotonic solution be used (oral or IV)? o Dehydration


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