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History 1010 All Notes so Far

by: Brittany Bell

History 1010 All Notes so Far History 1010

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Brittany Bell

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These notes cover from the first day to yesterday (9/19/2016)
World History 1
Mr. Morris Bian
Class Notes
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This 15 page Class Notes was uploaded by Brittany Bell on Tuesday September 20, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to History 1010 at Auburn University taught by Mr. Morris Bian in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 11 views. For similar materials see World History 1 in History at Auburn University.


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Date Created: 09/20/16
World History 1010 8/17/2016 Lecture 1- UNIT ONE. GOES ALONG WITH WEST ASIA OUTLINE (saved on USB)  An interpretative framework for understanding world history o Here to define ourselves/ be informed citizens o Prehistory to 1750 CE  Questions posed everyday o Common patterns/ dynamics? o Concept questions used throughout semester  Primary traditions? Developed 1 , enduring/ important, shaped evolution. Took shape during “the defining moment.”  Secondary traditions? Develop later, less enduring/ important than primary  Defining moment of human civilization? 500 BC- 500 CE (roughly). Major civilizations developed their defining moment/ characteristics during this time. Who was responsible?  Creative minorities (were responsible)? Political, religious, intellectual leaders who helped shape and define their civilizations. Members of the elite, philosophers. They all had different orientations- why?  What were the resource endowments? Geographic environment shapes it, that’s why. This determines the social/ political structure and orientation. Natural/ intellectual/ institutional resources are available for development of the human society.  Other scholars teach it this way:  Classical civilizations  Medieval period  Modern period o This causes confusion- fragmentation of knowledge  We focus on Eurasia o “Tree” of civilizations  West Asia  Europe  East Asia 8/19/2016  Resources at our fingertips o - Encyclopedia Britannica Online o th  Book suggestions- Muhammand (Read by Sep. 13 ) o Basic facts about Muhammand and life o Structure and organization of Arab society o Development of Islam and Muslim community o Main ideas, arguments and explanations of the author o Key terms and concepts of the author  West Asian Civilization- Lecture 1 o Mesopotamia Society 6000 BC- 1500 BC  Characteristics of a Civilized Society  Civilization- form of human culture characterized by existence of cities, religious/ new political/ military/ new social structures and writing o an urban revolution- cities o distinct religious structure- God’s determined essential for survival. Priests. Heaven. o new political/ military structures. bureaucracy- people appointed by a leader (not elected) to staff departments. Dominated o a writing system  Formation of a civilized society  Water has a causal connection to the formation of civilizations  Population in 3000 BC was 100,000 due to he water and making people want to move there. Sumerians  City- states are governmental institutions  2340 BC Sargon established Akkadian Empire- the first in Mesopotamia  Babylonian Empire replaced the Akkadian Empire  Direction and Process of Change  Cities > City- States > Regional empires  Empire- political unit with extensive territory  Babylonian under Hammurabi (1792 BC- 1750 BC) o Relied on centralized government bureaucracy  Code of Hammurabi- most extensive and most complete Mesopotamian law code (1750 BC) o Penal law- death penalty for murder/ theft o Civil law- regulations on prices, wages and commercial transactions o Significance- transition of Mesopotamian society from one governed primarily by customs and conventions to one governed by bureaucratic state/ laws o Writing- reed stylus on clay pieces  Rise of the Persian Empire 558 BC- 651 CE o Assyrian Empire was invaded by the Medes and the Persians  Medes- Ancient Iranian people who live in North Western portion of modern day Iran. Kurds were their ancestors  Persians- Lived in north western portion of Iran as well. Iranian. Persian language. Before 1935 Iran was Persia  These two conquered the region west of Indus River- which led to the Persian Empire by 6 Century BC o Dynasties under the Persian Empire (558 BC- 651 CE)  Achaemenid- focus on this one  Seleucid  Parthian  Sasanid o Empire- political unit with extensive territory or territory that includes a political unit o Dynasty- Succession of rulers from the same family/ line  Defining Moment in World History  Formation of Primary Political Tradition under Achaemeind o Empire- 6 Century BC “Median” Empire  Cyrus the Achaemenid- Pasargadae (where he governed) th  Darius of the Achaemenid Empire- largest Empire in the 6 Century  Made more contributions to political traditions  Took steps to centralization o New capital city- Persepolis- monument for dynasty o Appointed governors- consolidate control of regions  Satrapies- state/ province/ region. Would have a “satrop”- governor, tax collector/ military officers. These are the checks of the satrapies  Others would send tributes  Alexander the great invaded the Persian Empire in 334 BC and destroyed Persepolis o Other dynasties employ to Imperial Bureaucracy  Seleucid  Parthian  Sasanid  Formation of Religious Traditions: Zoroaster and Creation of Religion of Salvation- th 6 Century BC o Cosmopolitan society o Zoroaster- From aristocratic family/ priest o Ahura Mazada- chose him as a prophet (he thought) o Monotheism- only one God o Angra Mainya- Evil spirit conflict for 12,000 years  Zoroaster won and evil disappeared 8/24/2016  Zoroastrian teachings o Good words/ thoughts/ deeds o Magi- priests under Persian empire, contributions:  Religious rituals, calendar, teach values, preserving the doctrine of Zoroaster o Religious centralization- process of one religion establishes itself as dominant in that society o Zoroaster’s teaching to writings (Avesta) under Sasanid Dynasty (224- 651 CE)  Jews living in Persia adopted these Zoroastrian teachings  High moral standards  Supernatural forces of good and evil  Individuals go under judgement  Future rewards and punishments  Forces of good ultimately prevail over evil  (Zoroastrian teachings (Persian empire) drifted to Islam faith (Islamic Empire). About same geographic region  Lecture 3- Muhammad and Rise of Islam 570- 661 CE o Geographic area of Islam- Arabian Peninsula 8/26/2016  Umma- “community of the faithful” / Medina is where Muhammad and followers met  Prayers in Allah  Something changed in his leadership  After he arrived- he became a political and military leader along with the secular power over a Muslim state  Creation of a theocracy/ theocratic state- government in which official policy is governed by immediate divine guidance or by officials who are regarded as divinely guided (religious)  They attacked where Muhammad is from, Mecca, and got them to convert to Islam, to adopt the faith of Muhammad (630)  Destroyed temples and replaced them with what they worshiped  632 Muhammad led Holy pilgrimage (Hajj) to Ka’ba. Also died in this year  They had most of Arabia under his control  Died without instructions as to who succeeded him o Caliph- a leader of Islamic polity, regarded as a successor of Muhammad and by tradition always male  Abu Bakr- wealthy merchant from Mecca, he was the first one. He was close to Muhammad  After he died, violence erupted.  Lecture Four. Formation of Major Islamic Traditions (661- 1258 CE) o Umayyads and Abbasids- Early Islamic dynasties  Umayyads- very first Islamic Empire (territorial extension to 733)  Damascus was the capital- central location- had good communication with every part of Empire  Governed as conquerors, policy reflected the interests of the Arab military aristocracy o Such a policy caused discontent among religious (muslims, jews, Christians, etc) and ethnic groups (arabs, Indians, Persians, greeks, etc)  allowed them to practice their own religions, but they gave them a tax if they didn’t convert to be muslim  caused deep resentment  contributed to collapse- rebellion in the 740’s. Led by Abu- al- Abbas. Forces got crushed in 750. Tried to settle differences, but he killed them all remaining o Abbasid Dynasty- (750- 1258). Islamic Dynasty  Cosmopolitan  Not a conquerors dynasty  Relied heavily on Persian techniques of statecraft, shows importance of centralized administrative bureaucracy  Built Baghdad as capital city in 762  Ulama- people with religious knowledge, scholars  Not priests  In law schools- trained teachers. Moral authority. Leaders of local communities o Formation of Major traditions of Islamic Civilization  Muslim sayings about learning  One hour of learning is worth more than one year of prayer  Learning is an act of worship  Shared a central core of religious duties. Preserve and transmit knowledge. Islamic knowledge took shape during the first five centuries of Islamic rule (7 - 12 centuries)  Revealed knowledge o Quran- the word of God revealed through Prophet Muhammad  Very beginning of education for Muslims o Hadith- the sayings and doings of Prophet Muhammad  He was the perfect model of human life o Sharia- Islamic law, which was extracted from the Quran and Hadith and codified into law  Overtime served as a “constitution” 8/29/2016  Rational knowledge- gained through wisdom/ logical argument o Art of government, technology, etc. drawn from Persian, Indian, Greek sources.  Examples: The Arabic numerals  Mystical Knowledge- Sufism/ Mysticism o belief in intuitive spiritual revelation. Through intuition or faith or sudden insight o Sufi (muslim mystic)- the person who believes this  Sought direct and personal experience with God th  Seeking closer understanding of God after the 7 century  Responsibility of the Ulama  Main task- preservation and transmission of Sharia (Islamic law). Judges, teachers, etc. typically supported by the government financially  Taught in Madrasa o Group of buildings for teaching theology and rthigious thw o Became center for legal studies during 11 and 12 centuries  Belief System of Sunni and Shiite Muslims  Sunni o The first three Caliphs were all successors of prophet Muhammad. Guidance of life should come from Quran o 85% of Muslims  Shiite- believed Ali, cousin and son in law of Muhammad, should be first caliph. Most important and enduring of all alternatives o 15% of Muslims  Key points about the Tradition of of centralized system of government  Islamic civilization had its roots in the Persian Empire  Under the Achaemenid dynasty the Persian empire consisted of 23 adminstrative and taxation districts with a governor appointed for each district  Within a decade of collapse of Umayyad dynasty, the Abbasids renewed effortrs to bring about administrative centralization  Structure of central admin bureaucracy 8/31/2016  Wednesday the 14 - test. Scantron needed  Lecture five- Military Patronage State under the Ottoman Empire 1326- 1750 CE o Military patronage state: An Overview of new Islamic Empires  Abbasid Dynasty was overthrown by the invading Mongols in 1258 o New Islamic empires, 1500- 1800  Ottoman  Safavid  Mughal o Defining Military Patronage State  Structured by a vast military institution  Functions were absorbed into the royal military household and within the military household bureaucrats and religious functionaries were ranked and paid like the military elite  Rulers competed among themselves to attract religious scholars, architects, etc. o Ottoman Empire  Created by ottoman turks o Evolution of Military Patronage state- Ottoman Empire  Turkic- Speaking people migrated to northwestern Anatolia between 9 th th and 11 centuries  Seljuk Turks were the first to inhabit and dominate Anatolia and to establish a dynasty  Consolidated their power at the expense of the byzantine empire, 1100  Under leadership of Osman Gazi successful at defeating the Byzantine Empire and other smaller states known as emirates (an area ruled by an emir- chieftain/ prince) o Emirate- nation of territory ruled by emir o United Arab Emirates  First major military success was in 1326- United Arab Emirates o Forces captured city of Bursa, which served as the capital for the Ottoman empire  Difference between Dynasty and empire  Dynasty- rulers from the same family  Empire- political unit having and extensive territory  Sultan- Ruler of a Muslim Country  The topkapi palace was constructed six years after the capture of Constantinople (1453) o Center of government admin o Private residence of the sultan and family o Harem (Women’s Quarters)  It refers to a house or a section of a house reserved for women members of a Muslim household o Concubine- refers to a woman (in certain societies) who was contracted to a man as a secondary wife, often having few legal rights and low social status o Eunuch- Guards for the Concubines  Mehmed the Conqueror solved the problem of succession by creating the Law of Fratricide  Conquest of Constantinople  Law of fratricide o Why- grandfather had to fight a long and bloody civil war against his brothers to take the throne, which explains why Mehmed introduced this law o All brothers/ nephews would be killed except for one in case the ruler died  Selim the Grim killed all his brothers and nephews with the exception of his heir, Suleyman the Magnificent o Changed at beginning of 1600, stop the killing and began to be placed in cage (no political power) until they were able to have political power 9/2/2016  Armed forces- important notes o Sultan Murad (1361- 89) the Ottoman Armed forces were recruited as slave troops known as Janissaries o Defining Devshirme (1395)  Recruitment and training system under the Ottoman empire, which required each province to furnish a levy of Christian boys who were raised as Muslims and became soldiers in the ottoman army or officials in the ottoman bureaucracy  Got an elite education, became men  Non boys that didn’t get picked would be trained to be a part of military  Benefit- create loyal forces  The central administrative bureaucracy staffed by those with a nominal slave status  Cannot be compared with Europeans slavery of Africans in the new world o Structure and function of divan (imperial council) under ottoman empire  Where state affairs were discussed and the business or running the ottoman empire was carried out. Consisted of grand vizier, viziers and other leading officials. Met weekly to deliberate on the political, administrative and religious affairs of the state o Reasons for extending patronage to the Ulama  The ottoman turks were foreign in terms of race and language, who had no historical ties to the societies they conquered. To govern their empires effectively, the Ottoman Turks followed the footstep of earlier Islamic rulers by extending o Transformation of Ulama  Entirely absorbed and incorporated into the state. State took care of Ulama. Transformed into a governing elite from a religious elite.  Main themes of west Asian civilization o Primary religious tradition- Zoroastrianism > Islam  Jews picked up some of Zoroastrianism o Primary Political tradition: administrative centralization o Primary geographical concentration: west Asia WEST EUROPE- UNIT ONE. GOES ALONG WITH WEST EUROPE WEB OUTLINE  Primary political, intellectual and socioeconomic tradition: foundation of European civilization, 2500- 300 BC  Origins of European Civilization: Ancient Greece, 2500- 500 BC o 1900 Arthur Evans Came to crete to confirm his theory about an ancient writing system  Evans named the civilization Minoan after Minos, a legendary king of crete o Characteristics of Minoan Civilization (height between 2000- 1500 BC)  Existence of monumental architecture  Lack of any sort of protective fortifications  Cretans were great traders and merchants  Suffered a collapse around 1450 BC as result of invasion by mainland greeks known as Myceanaeans  Myceanaeans came from Mycenae  Linear B- linear A script of crete transformed into their own language  Civilization virtually disappeared as a result of warfare during the dark age 1200- 1700 BC  Internal warfare  Political/ economic/ social depression  Little artifacts remain o Archaic Age 700- 500 BC o Defining Polis (city- state)  Small autonomous political unit in which all major political, social, and religious activities were carried out at one centralthocation  Fundamental institution in Greek society by the 8 century BC o European primary traditions. Use Athens as example  Primary political tradition of administrative decentralization and institutional pluralism  Primary intellectual and ideological tradition of a rational approach to human society and nature  Primary social and economic tradition of a market- oriented exchange economy  Inventing primary political tradition: The establishment of a pattern of administrative decentralization and institutional pluralism in Greece (700- 338 BC) o Centralization- bring under a single, central authority. o Decentralization- distribution of administrative functions or powers of central authority among different government organizations as well as different local authorities o Athens  Beginning- generally followed correctly. Governed by aristocrats/ nobles. Very powerful organization  Experienced problems- merges of conflicts among two different social class- aristocrats and farmers  Life was dominated by market mechanisms  Borrowed money from aristocrat neighbors (banks at the time- kinda) o Have to put down something- insurance/ collateral  Property acceptable as security for a loan  Bodies/ themselves  Solon became chief archon (chief executive official) in 594 BC  Allowed aristocrats to keep their land  Cancelled debts, forbade debt slavery, and liberated those already enslaved for debt  Provided representation for the common classes in the Athenian government  Significance- his reforms established a basic framework for resolving the social tensions and class conflict  Last tyranny was in 510 BC.  Cleisthenes resisted the attempt to reestablish an aristocratic oligarchy. In the process he undertook reforms, which established the basis for the Athenian democracy o Defining tyrant- came to power in an unconstitutional way  Not subject to law  Brought on war  Disorder/ chaos o Various forms of European system of government  Democracy- government by the people, directly through representatives  Aristocracy- government by ruling class, hereditary nobility  Oligarchy- government by a few, especially by a small faction of persons or families  Monarchy- government by a monarch, ruler of a state, such as king of early modern france  Tyranny- government by a single ruler is vested with absolute power and authority  Anarchy- lack of government, no political authority  Constitutional- government authority limited or regulated by a constitution o Reforms of Cleisthenes  Redrew political map of Attica by enrolling all citizens into 10 new tribes  Attica: the territory of Athens  Each tribe chose 50 members by lot each year for a council of 500, which was in charge of financial affairs and preparing the agenda for an assembly of all male citizens  Lot: the use of objects in making a determination  The assembly of all male citizens had a final authority in the passing of laws o Consequence of Cleisthenes’s reforms  Weakened the power of traditional localities and regions  They reinforced the central role of the assembly of all male citizens in the Athenian political system  The established the foundation for democracy o Defining Acropolis- the fortified citadel of a city in ancient Greece o Characteristics of the executive branch  Most administrative officials were chose by lot  The only officials actually elected by public vote were a) the architect and b) the board of 10 generals o Meaning of Athenian experience  The Athenian political system was primarily a product of a set of historical conditions unique to Athens. There was nothing inevitable about the establishment of Athenian democracy. Unique to city state of Athens  Nothing inevitable about the establishment about the democracy  Administrative decentralization  What to know about exam 1 o Scantron needed  Blue  Primary intellectual tradition development of a rational approach to human society and nature 700- 323 BC o Plato’s Theory to ideal forms  World of ideal and eternal forms o Plato’s Republic was the first major work of Utopian literature  Based on theory of ideal forms o Defining Utopia- ideal perfect place  Defined into four social classes  Slaves- implied but never discussed  Craftsmen/ farmers- only property owners  Auxiliaries- recruited from the most promising children of slaves  Guardians- selected from the best children of the auxiliaries, once recruited they would undergo more education and logic so they will understand fundamentals such as justice. o At 35 they undergo governing  The Plato academy- 387 BC  First European university? o Aristotle 382- 322 BC  Tutored alexander the great (356- ? BC)  Did not believe in the existence of ideal form  Thought the separation of ideal and materialistic was pointless  Form and matter inseparable/ complimentary  Form- ultimate reality or universal principle  Matter- material manifestation of the ultimate reality or universal principle  All living things have potential and it is there duty to fill out their potential  Humans? Capacity to reason o This is what differentiates humans from lower beings  Three good forms of government  Monarchy  Aristocracy  Constitutional  Potential problems with those ^  Monarchy >>> Tyranny  Aristocracy>>> Oligarchy  Constitutional >>> Radical democracy or anarchy o Meaning and implications of Greek philosophy  Greek philosophy was a product of reason  This rational approach to human society and nature formed the primary intellectual tradition of European civilization  No God was involved in this rational approach  Based almost entirely on reason and not faith  Mediterranean triad  Grapes  Cereal- very little of this o Wanted to focus on the others o Driven by necessity to engage in commodity production and economic change  Olive o Ancient Greek Coins- medium of exchange  Increased population further strained the already scarce food resources available in the rocky and mountainous Greek peninsula and led Greeks to establish colonies to relieve population pressure MISSED FIRST CLASS  The struggle of the orders: social division o Key episodes in the struggle of the Orders  Institution of two new officials - tribunes – who were elected by the plebeians to protect their rights from arbitrary acts of the patrician magistrates (494 BC)  passage of a law allowing the right of intermarriage between patricians and plebeians (445 BC)  Passage of another law making decisions by the assembly of tribes binding on the entire Roman community (287 BC)  Changes in the senate and the emergence of optimates and populares o Internal instability characterized the period of roman history from 133- 31 BC o First important development took place in the roman senate  From 233 – 133 BC the nobles controlled the magistracies and the senate  80% of consuls came from 26 families  50% of consuls came from 10 families  the second important development was the emergence of two types of aristocratic leaders – the optimates and the populares  picture taken on phone  (below is part of it)  unlike the struggle of the orders, which was a class struggle in nature, the struggle between the optimates and populares was a struggle within the ruling class: the optimates controlled the senate, wished to maintain their oligarchical privilages, and weaken the power of popular assemblies, while the populates were other ambitious aristocrats who used the popular o Tiberius Gracchus- first populare leader  The reform attempt by the Gracchi brothers, 133 – 121 BC o Latifundia: Great Landed Estates  The rise of latifundia and the decline of farmers: consequences  Since small citizen farmers had traditionally provided the foundation of the roman army, the decrease in the number of small farmers meant that the number of men availbel for military service decreased  Many of the landless small farmers drifted to cities like Rome, forming a large lass of laborers who possessed no property. They constituted the new urban proletariat o Proletariat were the lowest class of citizens without property in ancient rome o Tiberius Gracchus was elected tribune in 133 BC, first populare  Solution offered by him was a radical/ revolutionary program of land redistribution  They murdered him o Gaius Gracchus was elected tribune for 123 and 122 BC o History lesson 1  Never underestimate the power of tradition of vested interests  Collapse of the roman empire nd o During the 2 century BC, Gaius Marius recruited any army from landless rural residents and urban workers o The aristocratic class organized their own armies to protect interests. Their general was Lucius Sulla o What did Gaius and Lucius have in common  Despite political differences, both generals recruited soldiers from the same segment of the population: the rural and the urban poor o Lucius Sulla “Blond Butcher of Rome” All questions of the day  Questions of the day 09/09/2016 o What conclusions can we draw from the Athenian historical experience? o How did the Greeks invent the primary intellectual tradition of European civilization characterized by rational approach to human society and nature?  Questions of the day- 9/7/2016 o How did the Greek polis (city- state) evolve? o What is the primary political tradition of European civilization? What do we mean by centralization? o How did the Greeks invent the primary political tradition of European civilization characterized by administrative decentralization?  Questions of the Day o Who constituted the Ottoman Empire’s ruling elite? o How dud the Sultan structure the central administrative bureaucracy? o How did the nature of Ulama change over time? o Where and when did the European civilization originate? o What do we know about Minoan and Mycenaean civilizations?  Questions of the day o How did the tradition of a centralized administrative bureaucracy originate and evolve? o When did the Ottoman Dynasty come into existence? o What were the implications of the institution of harem? o Who constituted the Ottoman Empire’s ruling elite? o How did the Sultan structure the central administrative bureaucracy? o How did the nature of Ulama change over time?  Questions of the day o How to define civilization? o How did the regional empires emerge in Mesopotamia? o What are the salient characteristics of Mesopotamia as a civilized society? o What constitutes the primary political tradition of Persian civilization?  Questions of the day o How should one define different types of Islamic knowledge? o Who were responsible for the transmitting 1) formal (revealed^^^/ rational) knowledge 2) informal (mystical/ spiritual) knowledge? o When did the tradition of Hajj begin? o What explains the division between Sunni and Shiite factions? o How did the tradition of a centralized administrative bureaucracy originate and evolve?  Questions of the Day- 8/22/2016 o What are the salient characteristics of Mesopotamia as a civilized society? o What constitutes the primary political tradition of Persian civilization? o How did Darius contribute to the formation of the primary religious tradition of Persian civilization?  Questions of the day o What explains the creation of umma and theocracy? Who succeeded prophet Muhammad? o How did the Umayyad and Abbasid dynasties come into existence? What explains the difference between the two dynasties? o How should one define different types of Islamic knowledge?  Questions of the day o How did Zoroaster contribute to the formaton of the primary religious tradition of the Persian civilization? o What was the geographical/ ecological context for the emergence of Islam? o How did Muhammad develop the contral tenet of Islam? What explains the conflict between Muslims and the existing political and religious establishment? o What explains the creation of Umma and theocracy? o Who succeeded Muhammad?


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