New User Special Price Expires in

Let's log you in.

Sign in with Facebook


Don't have a StudySoup account? Create one here!


Create a StudySoup account

Be part of our community, it's free to join!

Sign up with Facebook


Create your account
By creating an account you agree to StudySoup's terms and conditions and privacy policy

Already have a StudySoup account? Login here

Biogeography upload 2

by: Brittany Yee

Biogeography upload 2

Marketplace > Kent State University > Biological Sciences > > Biogeography upload 2
Brittany Yee
GPA 3.3

Preview These Notes for FREE

Get a free preview of these Notes, just enter your email below.

Unlock Preview
Unlock Preview

Preview these materials now for free

Why put in your email? Get access to more of this material and other relevant free materials for your school

View Preview

About this Document

These notes cover the rest of chapter 6 and what we went through this week on chapter 7
Dr. Brian Grafton
Class Notes
Biology, diversity, Ecology, Science, geography
25 ?




Popular in Biogeography

Popular in Biological Sciences

This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Brittany Yee on Tuesday September 20, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to at Kent State University taught by Dr. Brian Grafton in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 33 views. For similar materials see Biogeography in Biological Sciences at Kent State University.


Reviews for Biogeography upload 2


Report this Material


What is Karma?


Karma is the currency of StudySoup.

You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!

Date Created: 09/20/16
 Vagility- species are able to migrate by their own power. They are actively migrating  Pagility- organisms disperse passively through wind, water, etc Abiotic seed dispersal organisms that disperse passively seeds get moved by environmental factors wind or water (Ex of water dispersal is coconuts) Biotic dispersal disperse seeds using animals fruit evolved to bribe a consumer of some sort to eat the seeds and then disperse them invertebrates can move great distances by “parachuting.” o Spiders can use their webs to catch wind currents and move great distances o Larvae can use ocean currents to move from one places to another o Large animals can be “rafted” from one place to another Barriers to dispersal  Tend to be species specific  Physiological- temperature, light, moisture o Ex: Puffins (birds that live only in the northern hemisphere). Similar looking to penguins. Dispersion is restricted by temperature barriers. Their barrier to dispersal is the tropics (temperature) o Ex: Right whale has amphitropical distribution. They have a distribution on either side of the tropics but stay out of tropic zones o Saltwater vs freshwater  Ecological/physical- competitors/predators. May not find enough food to disperse through the area. If there are too many predators that prefer the organism that is moving it may never get there. o Physical barriers include mountains, rivers, deserts Dispersal routes  1) Corridor- the most generalized and open route. Least restricted kind of dispersal o Ex: land bridges (Bering land bridge and Panama land bridge) o The Sunda shelf between Thailand, Sumatra, and Borneo o Tethyan seaway  2) Filter- more restrictive. Not completely open and connected, so certain species cant move. o Arabian Peninsula- the only way between Africa and Asia. Because of climate differences in each area, there are restrictions to dispersion between both plants and animals  3) Sweepstakes- low probability of moving from one place to another. Happens completely by chance Establishing a colony  Appropriate habitat  Have to be able to reproduce and have viable offspring CHAPTER 7: SPECIATION AND EXTINCTION  Ontogenetic relationships- individual metamorphasizes  Tokogenetic relationships- relationships between individuals in a species  Phylogenetic relationships- relative times in the past that species came from a common ancestor  Cladogenesis- the evolution of 2 new species  In asexual species- there is a linear conductivity. Very little connection between individual lineages because theyre not reproducing with eachother o Tend to be more isolated Species concepts  Evolutionary Species Concept- an evolutionary species is a single lineage of ancestor- descendant populations which maintains its identity and has its own evolution tendencies o Morphology  Morphological species concept- species are the smallest groups that are consistently distinct and distinguishable o Morphological- “type specimen” the first specimen that is observed that describes the species  Doesnt take into account that species are variable (individual variation)  Species are individually variable and geographically variable  Biological species concept- species are groups of actually or potentially interbreeding natural populations that are reproductively isolated** from other groups o Reproductive isolation is the key concept. Kind of gets away from the concept of morphology  Phylogenetic Species concept- a cluster of individuals that exhibit a pattern of phylogenetic ancestry o Monophyletic groups based on shared derived traits (synapomorphies)  Subspecies- an aggregate of phenotypically similar populations of a species inhabitating a geographic subdivision of the range of the species and differing taxonomically from that species o Ex: deer mice- geographically and phenotypically distinct species based on their area, but they are all considered deer mice Levels of evolution  Microevolution- gradual accumulation of genetic changes o Within species  Macroevolution- accumulation of small changes over a long period of time. Creates a new species o Speciation Rates of evolution Gradualism- evolution occurs through gradual changes Punctuated equilibrium- species don’t change for a long period of time. Then there is an event that caused relatively rapid speciation o Partially explains gaps in the fossil record Forces of evolution Mutation- produces variation Gene flow- “evens out” variation Nonrandom mating- decreases heterozygosity Genetic drift- changes in allele frequencies by chance* o Reduces variation Natural selection- major force that produces new species by speciation


Buy Material

Are you sure you want to buy this material for

25 Karma

Buy Material

BOOM! Enjoy Your Free Notes!

We've added these Notes to your profile, click here to view them now.


You're already Subscribed!

Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'

Why people love StudySoup

Jim McGreen Ohio University

"Knowing I can count on the Elite Notetaker in my class allows me to focus on what the professor is saying instead of just scribbling notes the whole time and falling behind."

Kyle Maynard Purdue

"When you're taking detailed notes and trying to help everyone else out in the class, it really helps you learn and understand the I made $280 on my first study guide!"

Bentley McCaw University of Florida

"I was shooting for a perfect 4.0 GPA this semester. Having StudySoup as a study aid was critical to helping me achieve my goal...and I nailed it!"


"Their 'Elite Notetakers' are making over $1,200/month in sales by creating high quality content that helps their classmates in a time of need."

Become an Elite Notetaker and start selling your notes online!

Refund Policy


All subscriptions to StudySoup are paid in full at the time of subscribing. To change your credit card information or to cancel your subscription, go to "Edit Settings". All credit card information will be available there. If you should decide to cancel your subscription, it will continue to be valid until the next payment period, as all payments for the current period were made in advance. For special circumstances, please email


StudySoup has more than 1 million course-specific study resources to help students study smarter. If you’re having trouble finding what you’re looking for, our customer support team can help you find what you need! Feel free to contact them here:

Recurring Subscriptions: If you have canceled your recurring subscription on the day of renewal and have not downloaded any documents, you may request a refund by submitting an email to

Satisfaction Guarantee: If you’re not satisfied with your subscription, you can contact us for further help. Contact must be made within 3 business days of your subscription purchase and your refund request will be subject for review.

Please Note: Refunds can never be provided more than 30 days after the initial purchase date regardless of your activity on the site.