New User Special Price Expires in

Let's log you in.

Sign in with Facebook


Don't have a StudySoup account? Create one here!


Create a StudySoup account

Be part of our community, it's free to join!

Sign up with Facebook


Create your account
By creating an account you agree to StudySoup's terms and conditions and privacy policy

Already have a StudySoup account? Login here

Oil Energy

by: Carina Sauter

Oil Energy Ecology 1000

Carina Sauter
GPA 3.79

Preview These Notes for FREE

Get a free preview of these Notes, just enter your email below.

Unlock Preview
Unlock Preview

Preview these materials now for free

Why put in your email? Get access to more of this material and other relevant free materials for your school

View Preview

About this Document

These notes cover how the US retrieves its oil, on our own and importing it. In class, we discussed the different organizations built around this industry and how we may be approaching our peak pr...
Introduction to Environmental Issues
Class Notes
25 ?




Popular in Introduction to Environmental Issues

Popular in Ecology

This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Carina Sauter on Tuesday September 20, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Ecology 1000 at University of Georgia taught by Connelly in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 7 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Environmental Issues in Ecology at University of Georgia.


Reviews for Oil Energy


Report this Material


What is Karma?


Karma is the currency of StudySoup.

You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!

Date Created: 09/20/16
Oil, Coal and Gas Energy • Forms of hydrocarbons o Crude oil (liquid form of fossil fuel) o Natural gas (gas form of fossil fuel) o Coal (solid form of fossil fuel) • Oil o Formation of Oil § Photosynthesis in oceans (takes millions of years) § Dead marine organic matter sinks • Anoxic/aerobic conditions – not enough oxygen for growth to occur § Accumulates: 10’s of millions of years to collect a lot § Sediments bury organic matter (i.e. mud, silt, rock, etc.) • Buries stuff with a lot of energy § Traps form from non-porous layers (rock/salt) § Needs pressure, heat, and time to become oil o Where is the oil? § Middle East = 2/3 of the 1 trillion barrels of global proven reserves § United States = 4% of the 1 trillion barrels • Need to import o Varying costs of extraction § $2 / barrel (Middle East) § $15 / barrel (continental US) – deeper, more expensive labor, etc. • Deepwater Gulf of Mexico oil (less than $10 / barrel) o History of Oil in the US § Coal – dominant form of energy until the 1800’s § First commercial well in 1859 near Titusville , PA § Crude oil became dominant in 1951 • Cars, heat, etc. • Mass production and factories § US mostly self-sufficient (as far as oil) at that time o When can we expect peak global production? § Colin Campbell: 2006-2010 § Francis Harper: 2010-2020 § PFC Energy: 2010-2015 § Petroleum Review: 2007 § Richard Heinberg: 2007-2008 § Kenneth Deffeyes: Thanksgiving 2005 § Michael Lynch: 20-30 years from now § Peter Odell: Thanksgiving 2035 § D.O.E. 2037 § USGS: 2040 § Bottom line – some estimates are similar, but nobody knows when – it will happen eventually § Will affect the economy enormously o Hubbert Curve § 1950’s: M. King Hubbert said that oil exploitation in the US would follow a bell-shaped curve § predicted peak production in the US 1970 § takes time to start up taking oil out of a source § it didn’t seem like it was a big deal at the time because global peak production hadn’t happened yet o Continental US peak § ~1970, half our oil was withdrawn and production began to decline § demand went beyond supply § imported oil $2.30 / barrel back then o 1970’s § OPEC: Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries • Group of 14 nations which collaboratively are largely responsible for global oil prices o Mostly countries whose economies depend on oil production o Agreed on rules and set collaborate prices o Why fight to keep prices low? • Formed in Baghdad, Iraq in September 1960 • Early 1970’s – US, Europe and Japan more dependent on imports (Middle East) • In 1970, OPEC restrained production in order to get higher prices o Supply went down, demand and prices went up o Knew we would still buy it § Oil Embargo • OPEC embargo: cut production to 5% per month o Political: Banned exports to the US because we had strong allies with their enemies (Israel) o Gas prices rose from $.30/gallon to $1.20/gallon o Widespread panic o Effects: § License plate restrictions § Lines around the block § Pumps closed on Sundays § Pumps completely closed down § Some monitors could only go up to 99 cents • Had to buy a ½ gallon of gas at a time o Actions set in motion § Plans made for the Trans-Alaskan Pipeline § Strategic Petroleum Reserve created in 1975 • Reserve holds ~ 727 MB § Department of Energy (DOE) 1977 § A national speed limit set at 55 mph (1973) § Cars were to average 27.5 mpg by 1985 o How else did we deal with OPEC? § We were willing to pay higher prices to get oil back; bought more oil § OPEC resumed shipment at $10.50 / barrel ($66 / barrel today) compared to $2.30 before the embargo • $56 / barrel in 2004 • $140 / barrel in 2008 • $45 / barrel today - $2 / gallon o Since then… what have we learned § Moved toward efficiency and alternatives stalled § Imported 28% of oil in early 1970’s § Nearly 50% in 1997 § As of 2008, imported more than 66% § 1987-1988: peaked 25.9 mpg § 1999: 23.8 mpg § 2001: US lowest efficiency since 1980 § things are gradually improving o Peak Significance § Effects felt well before we run out § Costs of drilling increase § Easiest wells are extracted first § As supply drops, cost increases § Forced to drill less profitable wells § So maybe cars will run on something else, but what about planes, buses, etc? o Effects of oil § Ex. a pound of beefs takes three quarters of a gallon to produce § Waste of tires and old cars o Plastic: § History • 1834 – Phenol extracted from coal tar • First synthetic plastic (Bakelite) – 1907-1909 • Early 1970s – plastic beverage containers • Almost all plastic now petroleum/natural gas based • Americans bought 31.2 billion liters water in 2006 (~ 17 MB of oil energy equivalent) • Enough oil used yearly to fuel 100,000 U.S. cars (8% of oil worldwide) § 15% of every barrel of oil is used to make plastics and other non-fuel products § Petrochemical Plastics § Great Pacific Garbage Patch • Estimated 3.5 million tons • Caught in gyres and concentrated • Sunlight and salt water reduce particle size • Does not biodegrade § Ecological effects: • Mount of plastics in ocean increasing • Entering food webs o Microdebris? • Some effects unknown • Ocean birds ingest plastic – feeds to young – starvation § Plastic packaging • Water bottles, leftover containers, plastic coating on cucumbers, etc.


Buy Material

Are you sure you want to buy this material for

25 Karma

Buy Material

BOOM! Enjoy Your Free Notes!

We've added these Notes to your profile, click here to view them now.


You're already Subscribed!

Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'

Why people love StudySoup

Bentley McCaw University of Florida

"I was shooting for a perfect 4.0 GPA this semester. Having StudySoup as a study aid was critical to helping me achieve my goal...and I nailed it!"

Jennifer McGill UCSF Med School

"Selling my MCAT study guides and notes has been a great source of side revenue while I'm in school. Some months I'm making over $500! Plus, it makes me happy knowing that I'm helping future med students with their MCAT."

Steve Martinelli UC Los Angeles

"There's no way I would have passed my Organic Chemistry class this semester without the notes and study guides I got from StudySoup."


"Their 'Elite Notetakers' are making over $1,200/month in sales by creating high quality content that helps their classmates in a time of need."

Become an Elite Notetaker and start selling your notes online!

Refund Policy


All subscriptions to StudySoup are paid in full at the time of subscribing. To change your credit card information or to cancel your subscription, go to "Edit Settings". All credit card information will be available there. If you should decide to cancel your subscription, it will continue to be valid until the next payment period, as all payments for the current period were made in advance. For special circumstances, please email


StudySoup has more than 1 million course-specific study resources to help students study smarter. If you’re having trouble finding what you’re looking for, our customer support team can help you find what you need! Feel free to contact them here:

Recurring Subscriptions: If you have canceled your recurring subscription on the day of renewal and have not downloaded any documents, you may request a refund by submitting an email to

Satisfaction Guarantee: If you’re not satisfied with your subscription, you can contact us for further help. Contact must be made within 3 business days of your subscription purchase and your refund request will be subject for review.

Please Note: Refunds can never be provided more than 30 days after the initial purchase date regardless of your activity on the site.