General Psychology-Chapter 1 The Science of Psychology
General Psychology-Chapter 1 The Science of Psychology PSYC - 11762 - 004
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This 8 page Class Notes was uploaded by Alexis notetaker on Tuesday September 20, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSYC - 11762 - 004 at Kent State University taught by Sharon M Sciartelli (P) in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 11 views.
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Date Created: 09/20/16
THE SCIENCE OF PSYCHOLOGY WHAT IS PSYCHOLOGY? 1. Behavior External (What you can do) 2. Mental Processes Internal (Must infer) [Thoughts, Feelings, Motives Psychology→The scientific study of: (Systematic data based answers to what and why) Interested in underlying physiology WHAT THEY STUDY? VIrtually everything! Why? Everything deals with thoughts, feelings, and behaviors (healthy &/or disordered) HISTORY: Interest in the mind...goes back thousands of years ✴But: Psych as an identified field of study is >150 years old s it was started in about 1870s PSYCH TODAY: SCIENCE & PROFESSION As a science Answers basic thinking, feeling, behaving Profession Applies info into a real situation and in real people Both have value and some people do both ✴WORK SETTINGS: ● About ½ are working in Clinical and service settings ● About ⅓ are in academic settings (Universities) ● The rest are in industry, schools, and misc settings PSYCHOLOGIST VS PSYCHIATRIST Psychologist PhD or PsyD Psychiatrist MD or DO (Med school the specialize) ● Both can do therapy, teach and research ● Psychiatrists can provide medication (Other physicians can too) ● Psychologists more formal standardized testing on personality (Ex: IQ) ● Often work together MA (Masters) level social workers and counselors also do therapy GROWTH OF PSYCH Growing exponentially Subfields Areas of specialization ✴Modern Theoretical Perspectives Theoretical Vs Subfield ↳Looking for ↳ Specialty areas cause/reason 7 KEY THEORETICAL PERSPECTIVES 1. Psychodynamic: Emphasis on: ● The way unconscious impulses and conflicts impact behavior ● The role childhood experiences plays in personality development ✴Unconscious matters 2. Behavioral: Emphasis on: ● Environmental contributors to observable behavior (things you can see) ● Behavior is the result of the environment (rewards, punishment, associations) ● Thoughts and feelings don’t matter and are not important ✴Environment matters 3. Humanistic: Emphasis on: ● Inborn capacity for choice & growth ● Main Belief: People have freewill (can choose their own destiny) ● Desire to become best possible (Selfactualization) ✴Freewill, choice, I matter 4. Cognitive; Emphasis on: ● Mental processes involved in “knowing” ● What we know, how we think, how we come to understand the world ● Memory, attention,intelligence, perception, language, problem solving ● When? →1960s ✴Thinking matters 5. Neuroscience (biological) Emphasis on; ● Brain and nervous system and their role in thinking,feeling,and behaving ● Has always been a thing/idea but happened little later due to enhancement in technology ● Relationship between body events and behavior/thoughts genes+more ● Twoway, Behavior/thoughts/feelings can impact the body too ● Each can change the other ● 50% caused by genes→however many can change mindset ✴Brain and body matter 6. Evolutionary: Emphasis on: ● Identifying inherited adaptive behavior and traits (Nature vs Nurture) ● Assumptionif inherited behavior contributes to survivalgenes get passed down see these genes in future generations ● Natural selection ● Helps explain (in part) ○ Prosocial behavior ○ Aggression ✴Survival genes matter 7. Sociocultural: Emphasis on: ● Social and cultural factors that impact behaviors ● Ex: how do social settings and expectations impact us ✴Other people matter Attempts made to identify universal principles as well as culturally specific ones M.T.P →They all have value ● No one theory dominates today ● Helpful to have multiple theories because behavior is multidetermined ✴Eclectic?→ Use ideas from more than one RESEARCH METHODS Basic vocab and Concepts: Population Entire group of Interest generally not practical ,not necessary to measure everyone SampleSubset of the group can infer population information from a good sample. save money and time What makes a good sample? Size must be big enough Representation must reflect those of Interest accurately ( Subgroups must be included proportionally) (Race, gender, age,etc) ✴ est way? Random sampling Everyone has an equal chance picking random from a larger population: Avoids bias and equally distributed Know the limits of your results: Generalizability Do results apply to other populations? Gender? Age? Cultural Groups? Only way to know is through additional research some patterns exist… ✴DATA COLLECTION TECHNIQUES 1. Observations(Natual/ Lab setting) What? Watch and record Pros? 1. See real behaviors Cons? 1. Time and Money 2. If you know you're being watched you may act different 3. Can't see everything 2. Survey and interview What? Ask on paper and in person Pros? 1. Can ask about anything ( rare behaviors, thoughts, feelings) 2. Faster 3. less expensive 4. larger samples Cons? one can lie → Social Desirability bias ↑ May not know! Wants to look good to researcher/ Embarrassed by the truth 3. Case study What? Tremendous detail on one Pros? 1. Learn what is possible Cons? 1. No what is probable 2. Will results generalize?(apply to others) !!No info on causation TYPES OF RESEARCH IN PSYCH (types of studies) 1. Descriptive what is out there ● Finding out about some variable 2. Correlational what goes together ● Discovering relationships between variables( making predictions) 3. Experimental what causes it ● Establishing causal relationships( explains can lead to change if needed) Descriptive research ● Determine what’s out there (behavior thoughts and/or feelings) Method: Gather preexisting data and summarize ( percentage, averages, frequencies) Correlational studies ● Identify association's/relationships→which allow you to make predictions Method: 1. Collect data on at least two factors (doesn't talk about cars only relationships) (no manipulations) 2. calculate correlation coefficient (r) * ranges 1 to + 1 Interpret correlation 1.0 + 1.0 Strong vs. Weak The closer R is 2 positive or negative 1 the stronger the relationship, closer to 0 the weaker The stronger relation the better your predictions in the fewer expectations there will be Rarely perfect ✴behavior is multidetermine Always be expectation; looking for likelihood ✴Positive or Negative Direction If Positive high score on 1 goes with high score on other low goes with low ( expect high on both and low on both) ex: age and gray hair If Negative high score on 1 goes with low score on other low goes with high ( expect High and low, low and High) ex: Time partying at night before an exam and grades Evaluation of Corr. studies: Overall invaluable knowing about relationships help us Relatively inexpensive ethically only option at times But? no info about cause Why? there is no way to tell from this type of data If A caused B If B caused A If something caused them both The Experiment: The only way to know for sure that one thing causes another the experimental method ● Start with two identical go ● treat them exactly the same except for one thing ● determine if they are different after this manipulation ● If they are since everything else was the same we can say our manipulation cause the difference Experiments Vocab: Independent manipulated variable (you control) (why treated different) Dependent observed variable (suspected effect) (measure at end same on everyone) (Measure the same then look for the difference) Experimental groups part of sample manipulated ( get iv= independent variable) Control group for comparison may or may not have (doesn't get IV) EXPERIMENTS Possible problems If you can’t guarantee groups are the same except for the iv the effect you see can be due to an unplanned third variable Third variable CONFOUNDS Confounds: Variables that changed with your IV (but you didn’t plan) They are a problem because they can be the real cause of your results THREE TYPES: 1. Preexisting group differences (sample bias): The groups were different right from the beginning so the manipulation didn’t matter ✴ To Avoid; use Random Assignment ( Everyone to have an equal chance of being in each different condition) basic factors should be distributed equally between groups 2. Participant bias (Subject bias): Acts differently due to personal expectations, not because of the IV) Ex; Placebo effect To Avoid; use single blind study participants don’t know which group, this way groups don’t have different expectations 3. Experimenter bias: Experimenter treats group differently based on expectations causing changes in DV To Avoid; Use double blind study Don’t let the researchers or participants know which group so nobody has a different expectations Double Blind study takes care of both biases!!! Single Blind only takes care of participant bias Ethical issues: Safeguarding individual rights and wellbeing is a priority in research TODAY For ex: Avoiding harm (physical and psychological) is a priority today Some risks obvious, some more subtle Need to think and need outside input How safeguarded? Ethical principles of psychologists and code of conduct (APA) informed consent: confidentiality, deception, debriefing) Institutional review boards (IRBs) (peer review) (multidisciplinary) If psychologists don’t follow these guidelines and procedures they will not get published, they will not get funding and may suffer charges. % of animal research 57%
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