New User Special Price Expires in

Let's log you in.

Sign in with Facebook


Don't have a StudySoup account? Create one here!


Create a StudySoup account

Be part of our community, it's free to join!

Sign up with Facebook


Create your account
By creating an account you agree to StudySoup's terms and conditions and privacy policy

Already have a StudySoup account? Login here

Coal and Natural Gas Energy

by: Carina Sauter

Coal and Natural Gas Energy Ecology 1000

Marketplace > University of Georgia > Ecology > Ecology 1000 > Coal and Natural Gas Energy
Carina Sauter
GPA 3.79

Preview These Notes for FREE

Get a free preview of these Notes, just enter your email below.

Unlock Preview
Unlock Preview

Preview these materials now for free

Why put in your email? Get access to more of this material and other relevant free materials for your school

View Preview

About this Document

This lecture finished the power point on difference sources of energy, now focusing on coal and natural gas rather than oil as we talked about last week. At the end of class, we discussed how thes...
Introduction to Environmental Issues
Class Notes
25 ?




Popular in Introduction to Environmental Issues

Popular in Ecology

This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Carina Sauter on Tuesday September 20, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Ecology 1000 at University of Georgia taught by Connelly in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 7 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Environmental Issues in Ecology at University of Georgia.


Reviews for Coal and Natural Gas Energy


Report this Material


What is Karma?


Karma is the currency of StudySoup.

You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!

Date Created: 09/20/16
Oil, Coil and Gas Energy • Oil (continued) o Extensions § Our oil demand is high, but world demand is rapidly increasing § Ex. Beijing 20 years ago was full of bicycles and people walking; now there are over 170 million private vehicles in China o Where are we getting our oil? § Sand Strip Mines (oil sands and oil shale) • Oil trapped in a solid form o 2 tons = 1 barrel • The process: o Dig a pit and take rock out o Hauled by heated dump trucks o Need to wash it with a lot of water and solvent § Removes bitumen o Cook bitumen to 900°F o Used sand (waste) dumped in to tailing ponds o Takes energy to find source and discard waste in an effort to find energy • 20 years ago, we had no need to use this process because oil was so easy to find and cheap to retrieve • Canada makes up 60-70% globally of sand mining • Impractical o Producing oil sands and oil shale draw heavily on water o Large amount of energy required o As conventional crude gets more expensive, however, oil shale becomes more profitable § Deepwater oil drilling • HUGE risk to spills • The Deepwater Horizon oil spill o Gulf of Mexico - flowed for three months in 2010 and may be continuing to seep • Largest marine oil spill in the history of petroleum industry • The spill stemmed from a sea-floor oil gusher that resulted from the 20 April 2010 explosion of Deepwater Horizon, which drilled on the BP-operated Macondo Prospect, which killed 11 men working on the platform and injured 17 others. • On 15 July 2010, the gushing wellhead was capped, after it had released about 4.9 million barrels of crude oil. • As of January 2011, tar balls continue to wash up, oil sheen trails are seen in the wake of fishing boats, wetlands marsh grass are dying, and crude oil lies offshore in deep water and in fine silts and sands onshore. • 491 miles of coastline in Louisiana, Mississippi, Alabama and Florida remained contaminated by BP oil. • Dolphins and whales continue to die at twice the normal rate, and in April 2012, scientists found alarming numbers of mutated crab, shrimp and fish which are believed to be the result of chemicals released during the oil spill. • In January 2011 the White House oil spill commission released its final report on the causes of the oil spill. They blamed BP and its partners for making a series of cost-cutting decisions and the lack of a system to ensure well safety. • They also concluded that the spill was not an isolated incident caused by "rogue industry or government officials", but that "The root causes are systemic and, absent significant reform in both industry practices and government policies, might well recur • The main cause was a defective cement job, and put most of the fault for the oil spill with BP, also faulting Deepwater Horizon operator Transocean and contractor Halliburton. • Coal o Formation § There are four main phases that coal goes through before it is considered “coal”: • Peat • Lignite • Bitumen • Anthracite § Needs time, pressure and heat o How is US electricity generated? § 45% coal § 23% natural gas § 20% nuclear § hydroelectric conventional, petroleum, and other renewables o Drawbacks: § Greenhouse gasses § Acid rain (pH <7) • any form of precipitation that is unusually acidic, meaning that it possesses elevated levels of hydrogen ions. It can have harmful effects on organisms and infrastructure through the process of wet deposition. Acid rain is caused by emissions of sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides which react with the water molecules in the atmosphere to produce acids • concentrated in the east near coal mines § Acid mine drainage • Acid mine drainage, or acid rock drainage, refers to the outflow of acidic water from mines (metal or coal) • Other areas where the earth has been disturbed (e.g. construction sites, etc.) may also contribute acid rock drainage § Particulates • Natural Gas o Formation: § Fracking • A hydraulic fracture is formed by pumping the fracturing fluid into the wellbore at a pressure that exceeds the strength of the rock. • The rock cracks and the fracture fluid continues further into the rock, extending the crack still further, etc. • Natural gas flows into the pipe and is collected § Drawbacks: • Hydraulic fracturing or "fracking," allows toxic chemicals and methane gas seep into drinking water because you must go through the water table • Additionally, experts fear that unacceptable levels of radioactive Radium 226 in gas development waste • Fracking chemicals are linked to bone, liver and breast cancers, gastrointestinal, circulatory, respiratory, developmental as well as brain and nervous system disorders. Such chemicals are present in frack waste and may find their way into drinking water and air § Marcellus Formation: • marine sedimentary rock found in eastern North America, named for a distinctive outcrop near the village of Marcellus, New York in the United States. • The shale contains largely untapped natural gas reserves, and its proximity to the high-demand markets along the East Coast of the United States makes it an attractive target for energy development. • Marcellus Shale contains enough natural gas to supply all US gas needs for 14 years. § Hydrofracking Video • A report by Earth Focus and UK's Ecologist Film Unit looks at the risks of natural gas development in the Marcellus Shale. • From toxic chemicals in drinking water to unregulated interstate dumping of potentially radioactive waste that experts fear can contaminate water supplies in major population centers including New York City. • Are the health consequences worth the economic gains? • Overall o Oil, coal and natural gas are not interchangeable – no alternatives o Although you may have 14 years’ worth of natural gas “energy” in the Marcellus formation for the US, natural gas does not provide the only type of energy we need o What can we do? § The wisest course of action might be to gradually shift to other forms of energy now (electricity, fuel cells, etc.), wherever we can (especially in cars) § This would save limited and environmentally costly oil reserves for the things that are difficult to run on other sources of energy (planes, replacing satellites, etc.) § The course of action with the LEAST foresight would be to wait until the situation is really dire, and then to scramble for solutions, when it may be too late – and more expensive


Buy Material

Are you sure you want to buy this material for

25 Karma

Buy Material

BOOM! Enjoy Your Free Notes!

We've added these Notes to your profile, click here to view them now.


You're already Subscribed!

Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'

Why people love StudySoup

Bentley McCaw University of Florida

"I was shooting for a perfect 4.0 GPA this semester. Having StudySoup as a study aid was critical to helping me achieve my goal...and I nailed it!"

Kyle Maynard Purdue

"When you're taking detailed notes and trying to help everyone else out in the class, it really helps you learn and understand the I made $280 on my first study guide!"

Steve Martinelli UC Los Angeles

"There's no way I would have passed my Organic Chemistry class this semester without the notes and study guides I got from StudySoup."


"Their 'Elite Notetakers' are making over $1,200/month in sales by creating high quality content that helps their classmates in a time of need."

Become an Elite Notetaker and start selling your notes online!

Refund Policy


All subscriptions to StudySoup are paid in full at the time of subscribing. To change your credit card information or to cancel your subscription, go to "Edit Settings". All credit card information will be available there. If you should decide to cancel your subscription, it will continue to be valid until the next payment period, as all payments for the current period were made in advance. For special circumstances, please email


StudySoup has more than 1 million course-specific study resources to help students study smarter. If you’re having trouble finding what you’re looking for, our customer support team can help you find what you need! Feel free to contact them here:

Recurring Subscriptions: If you have canceled your recurring subscription on the day of renewal and have not downloaded any documents, you may request a refund by submitting an email to

Satisfaction Guarantee: If you’re not satisfied with your subscription, you can contact us for further help. Contact must be made within 3 business days of your subscription purchase and your refund request will be subject for review.

Please Note: Refunds can never be provided more than 30 days after the initial purchase date regardless of your activity on the site.