Biology week 4 notes
Biology week 4 notes BIOL 101 - 004
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This 7 page Class Notes was uploaded by Sidney Strauss on Tuesday September 20, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to BIOL 101 - 004 at University of South Carolina - Columbia taught by Milan K. Dhameja in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 7 views.
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Date Created: 09/20/16
Biology 101- Notes 9/15/16 Mitochondria- sites of cellular respiration, metabolic process that creates ATP (powerhouse of the cell) In nearly all eukaryotic cells Smooth outer membrane and an inner membrane folded into cristae Inner membrane creates two compartments: intermembrane space and mitochondrial matrix Some metabolic steps of cellular respiration are catalyzed in the mitochondrial matrix Cristae presents a large surface area for enzymes that create ATP Chloroplasts-found in plants and algae, site of photosynthesis\ Member of family called plastids Contain green pigment chlorophyll, as well as enzymes and other molecules that function in photosynthesis Structure includes; thylakoids, membranous sacs, stacked to form a granum Stroma, internal fluid What stroma is to chloroplasts, cytosol is to a cell Peroxisomes- oxidative organelles Produce hydrogen peroxide to convert it to water Oxygen is used to break down different types of molecules Mitochondria and chloroplasts are not part of the endomembrane system: They have proteins made by free ribosomes Double membrances Contain their own DNA Cytoskeleton-network of fibers extending throughout the cytoplasm Three main types of fibers make up cytoskeleton Microtubules- thickest Cell shape and mobility Chromosome movement in cell division Microfilaments- also called actin, thinnest Cell shape, muscle contraction, cytoplasmic streaming Intermediate filaments-fibers with diameters in middle rangle Cell shape, anchorage of organelles Know from pic: protein subunit and some functions, Most cells synthesize and secrete materials that are external to the plasma membrance Three extracellular structures that we know Cell walls of plants Primary cell wall-relatively thin and flexible Middle lamella:thin later between primary walls of adjacent cells Secondary cell wall: added between the plasma membrance and primary cell wall Extracellular matrix(ECM) of animals (cell to cell interaction) Made up of gylcoproteins such as collagen, proreoglycans, and fibronectin ECM proteins bind to receptor proteins in the plasma membrane called integrins Functions: Support, adhesion, movement, regulation Intercellular junctions (cell to cell communication) Types: Plasmodesmata- plant Perforate cell wall of plants ^ Tight junctions Desmosomes Gap junctions-animal
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