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Biology 101, Week 3 Notes

by: Mylan Siscar

Biology 101, Week 3 Notes BIO 101

Marketplace > Oakton Community College > Biology > BIO 101 > Biology 101 Week 3 Notes
Mylan Siscar

GPA 4.0

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About this Document

This set of notes completes Chapter 2 (The Chemical basis of Life) and starts Chapter 3 (The Molecules of Cells)
Introduction to Life Science
Elaine Phillips
Class Notes
Biology, Organic Chemistry
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Mylan Siscar on Tuesday September 20, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to BIO 101 at Oakton Community College taught by Elaine Phillips in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 3 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Life Science in Biology at Oakton Community College.


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Date Created: 09/20/16
(Chapter 2 continued from Week 2) September 6, 2016  Ionic and Ionic Bonds o Ionic bonds are attractions between ions of opposite charges  Ions are charged particles that lose/gain electrons  Ions transfer electrons  Ionic bonds result from the transfer of electrons between ions of opposite charges o Ionic compounds are composed of a metal and a non-metal in the transferring of electrons  Groups with  Covalent Bonds o Sharing of electrons o Two or more atoms held together by a covalent bond formed by a non-metal and a non-metal o Molecules are two or more elements that share electrons and form covalent bonds o Can form single, double, or triple bonds September 8, 2016  Electronegativity o Electronegativity- The attraction for shared electrons. o Atoms in a covalent bond compete for shared electrons. o Electrons shared equally is a non-polar covalent bond (i.e.: O , N 2 H2, e2c.) o Electrons that are shared unequally is a polar covalent bond (i.e.: H O2  Usually composed of two or more different elements. Nonpolar Bonds Polar Bonds 1   Octet Rule- every atom wants to have eight valence electrons in its outermost electron shell to be most stable. o Hydrogen bonds (weak bonds)  Water (polar molecule)  Has atoms with different electronegativity  Oxygen attracts the shared electrons more strongly that hydrogen, so the shared electrons spend more time near oxygen  The oxygen thus has a slightly negative charge and the hydrogen has a slightly positive charge.  Properties of water o Cohesion- Molecules of the same kind stick together. o Adhesion- Clinging of one substance to another (two kinds of molecules). o Surface Tension- forming a film on the surface (hydrogen bonds gives water its high surface tension). (i.e.: Water and Oil- They do not mix because water is polar and oil is nonpolar) o Water can exist as a solid, liquid, or gas  Ice is less dense that liquid water (in ice, water bonds are stable; in liquid, water bonds are unstable) and thus ice floats at 4 degrees Celsius. o Water is the solvent of life  Solution- A uniform mixture of two or more substances.  A substance is an element or compound  Solvent- The substance that does the dissolving.  Solute- the substance that is being dissolved.  Both the solvent and the solute make up a solution.  Aqueous- Water is the solvent in the solution. o Water’s hydrogen bonds moderate temperature  Water has a greater ability to resist temperature change.  Heat is energy and the movement of atoms and molecules in matter.  Temperature is the intensity of heat.  Heat is released when hydrogen bonds form and heat must be absorbed to break hydrogen bonds.  Acids and Bases o In aqueous solutions H O 2olecules break apart into ions; (H+) hydrogen ions and (OH-) hydroxide ions. o When a solution is an acid, it has an increased number of H+ (compounds that release hydrogen ions into a solution). o An increase in H+ means a decrease in pH SCALE UNITS. o When a solution is a base, it has an increased number of hydroxyl ions and a decreased number of H+. o pH- Potential for Hydrogen (describes how acidic or basic a solution is).  The pH for human blood is about 7.4  0-6 is acidic  7 is neutral  8-14 is basic  Each pH unit represents a tenfold change in the concentration of H+. o Buffers  Minimizes changes in pH.  Accepts H+ when in excess.  Donates H+ when they are depleted. o Chemical Reactions  The making and breaking of chemical bonds  Reactants- Beginning substances (before the arrow).  Products- Results of the reaction (after the arrow).  i.e.: 22H ) +2O  22H O)   Chapter 3: The Molecules of Cells  Organic Compounds- Compounds that contain carbon. o By sharing electrons, carbon can bond to four other atoms. o Methane (CH ) is the simplest organic compound. 4 o Molecules of only carbon and hydrogen are hydrocarbons.  Isomers- Substances that have the same chemical formula, but a different structure (i.e.: glucose, fructose, and galactose). o Glucose and galactose are isomers, and are aldehydes o Fructose is also an isomer, and is a ketone  Functional Groups- A few chemical groups that indicate the functioning of the molecule. o Hydroxyl (OH), alcohol (functional group in carbohydrates) o Carbonyl (C=O), includes aldehydes and ketones (functional group in carbohydrates) o Carboxyl (COOH) (functional group in lipids) o Amino group (NH ) (functional group in proteins) 2 o Phosphate group (OPO 3 (functional group in DNA, RNA, and phospholipids) o Methyl (CH 3 (functional group in lipids)              Triose Sugars  Pentose Sugars  Hexose Sugars (C 6 12)6 (C3H6O3) (C5H105)   Glyceraldehyde  Ribose  Glucose  Galactose s d y e d      Dihydroxyacetone  Ribulose  Fructose       (Chapter 3 will be continued the following week)


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