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Biology 101, Week 4 Notes

by: Mylan Siscar

Biology 101, Week 4 Notes BIO 101

Marketplace > Oakton Community College > Biology > BIO 101 > Biology 101 Week 4 Notes
Mylan Siscar

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About this Document

These notes complete Chapter 3 (The Molecules of Cells) from Week 3
Introduction to Life Science
Elaine Phillips
Class Notes
Biology, Chemistry
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Mylan Siscar on Tuesday September 20, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to BIO 101 at Oakton Community College taught by Elaine Phillips in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 3 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Life Science in Biology at Oakton Community College.


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Date Created: 09/20/16
(Chapter 3 is continued from Week 3 notes) September 13, 2016  Four classes of molecules important to organisms o Carbohydrates o Proteins o Lipids o Nucleic Acids  These are macromolecules (large molecule)  Micromolecules- (small molecule)  Polymer- long molecule made up of monomers (building blocks)  Dehydration Reaction- Loss of water molecule to produce a larger molecule (synthesize)  Hydrolysis- gaining of a water molecule to produce a smaller molecule (break apart)  All biological reactions are catalyzed by enzymes (speeds up a chemical reaction without itself being altered)  Carbohydrates are the sugars and starches; they consist of the following molecules: o Monosaccharides (Most monosaccharides end in -ose)  They are simple sugars. (CH O2  Their formula is C 6 12(6lucose, fructose, and galactose)  It’s a main fuel for cellular work. o Disaccharides (A linkage of two monosaccharides)  Their formula is C H12 22 11 (water is removed when two monosaccharides are combined)  Maltose (Glucose + Glucose)  Sucrose (Glucose + Fructose) [table sugar]  Lactose (Glucose + Galactose) o Polysaccharides  Polymers (many—thousands) of monosaccharides  Macromolecules that function as storage or as structural compounds  Starch- used by plants for energy  Glycogen- Found in animals used for energy (stored in the liver)  Cellulose- forms the supporting structure of plants  Chitin- exoskeletons of insects and crustaceans  Lipids o Important for long term storage o Contains twice as much energy as a polysaccharide o Water insoluble o Hydrophobic (water-fearing) o Non-Polar o Types of lipids  Fats  Three fatty acids and a glycerol (triglyceride)  Energy storage-fatty acids are hydrophobic and non-polar  Unsaturated Fats- double bonds found in the fatty acids, liquid fat 1  Saturated Fats- No double bonds found in the fatty acids, solid fat September 15, 2016  Oils  Hydrogenated vegetable oils are unsaturated fats that have been converted to saturated fats by adding hydrogen and creates trans fats  Waxes  Steroids  Lipids in which the carbon skeleton has four fused rings.  Cholesterol- found in cell membranes  Starter for making steroids, including sex hormones  Phospholipids  Found in cell membranes- two fatty acids and one glycerol, and a phosphate  Bilayer of two fatty acids and a glycerol  Hydrophilic heads in contact with the water of the environment.  Hydrophobic tails (2) in the center of the bilayer.  Proteins o Made from amino acid monomers which are involved in every dynamic function in the body. o Every living thing has 20 amino acids o Has an amino group (NH ) an2 a carboxyl group (COOH) o Held together by peptide bonds  The bonds are linked by dehydration synthesis. o R-Group determines the amino acid. o Linkage of amino acids forms proteins via peptide bonds. o Two amino acids linked is a dipeptide. o Many amino acids linked in called a polypeptide. o Functions of proteins:  Structural (hair, tissues, [associations between body parts])  Antibodies  Signal - hormones, messengers  Receptor - transmit signals  Transport - deliver oxygen (hemoglobin)  Storage - embryos  Contractile proteins - muscles  Enzymes - biological catalyst o Protein’s shape determines its function  Primary Structure (linear) i.e.: insulin  Secondary Structure i.e.: hair  Coiling is called alpha helix  Folding is called pleated sheet  Tertiary Structure  Interactions among the R-Groups  Disulfide bridges  Higher level folding is 3-dimensional 2  Quaternary Structure i.e.: collagen, hemoglobin  Two or more polypeptide chains o Denaturation- protein loses its function  Can be denatured by changes in salt concentration, pH, or high heat  Nucleic Acids o Both DNA and RNA  DNA- deoxyribonucleic acid  Makes up genes; genes consist of DNA  Directs the synthesis of proteins  Double helix  RNA- ribonucleic acid  Involved in translation of proteins  Single strand o Nitrogenous bases  DNA- deoxyribose nucleic acid  Adenine  Thymine  Cytosine  Guanine  RNA- ribonucleic acid  Adenine  Uracil  Cytosine  Guanine  DNA and RNA are polymers of nucleotides  Nucleotides o Three parts:  Five carbon sugars  Deoxyribose for DNA  Ribose for RNA  Phosphate group  Nitrogenous base o Complimentary bases for DNA nitrogenous bases  A always with T  G always with C o Complimentary bases for RNA nitrogenous bases  A always with U  G always with C 3


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