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COMM 350 Week 4

by: Mia Watson

COMM 350 Week 4 COMM 350

Mia Watson
Texas A&M

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week 4 !
Theories of Media Communication
Heidi Campbell
Class Notes
Media, Theory, communication, telecommunication
25 ?




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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Mia Watson on Tuesday September 20, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to COMM 350 at Texas A&M University taught by Heidi Campbell in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 14 views. For similar materials see Theories of Media Communication in Journalism and Mass Communications at Texas A&M University.

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Date Created: 09/20/16
Key Terms: Toronto & Medium Theory  Bias of Communication  Civilization  Medium Theory  Monopoly of Knowledge  New journalism Course Topics Covered So Far:  Theoretical Approaches o Mass Compare & Contrast: Mass Culture Theory 1.0 vs. Mass Culture Theory 2.0  Core ideas/values – Benjamin & Leavis o MC1: Concern for elite culture shaping development of civilization o MC2: Concern for culture as produced and engaged by private citizens  Views of society o MC1: cultivated minority vs. undiscerning mass o MC2: public opinion and voices creates ways of public thinking  Views of Media o MC1: expression of low culture o MC2: media helps public sphere Compare & Contrast: Media Effects & Political Economy  Core values/ideas o ME: concern for media impacts on audiences o PE: focus on media systems influence issues of ownership and power  Views of society o ME: ultimately shaped by media o PE: economic, political & cultural life intertwined and shaped by media ownership & control  Views of media o ME: powerful force shaping public opinion o PE: media “manufacture consent” (structures of power controlling the media) Hypodermic Needle - intended message is directly received and wholly accepted by the receiver. Theoretical Approaches through the lens of Lasswell’s Transmission Model Who?(Communicator) Says what?(Message)By Which Channel?(Channel)To Whom?(receiver)With What Effect(Effect) Theory Lab 1  Done in project groups  Bring notes and key words textbook  Part 1: definitional  Part 2: applied case study – watch a video/article w a certain perspective, identify what it is and answer questions Toronto & Medium Theory Background  University of Toronto (1930-1975)  Key Figures: Eric Havelock, Harold Innis, Marshall McLuhan, Ted Carpenter  Focus on primacy of communications in structuring human cultures & human mind o Communication technologies as key agents in social and historical contexts Medium Theory  Media are unique “mediums” with their own language, o Medium as an environment where meaning is made  Focuses on channels of communication shape meaning o Term attribute to Joshua Meyrowitz (No Sense of Place, 1985) o Various approaches  Summarizes focus on expressions of human communication impacts on meanings of human communication Toronto Approach to Medium theory  How technological apparatus of mass media shape contemporary social relations o Theoretical contribution: medium focused approach o Innis- “bias of communication” (brains) o McLuhan- “global village”, “hot & cold media” (brand) o Technological determinism – technology determines culture, shaping culture The Toronto School: Innis  Empire and Communications (1950) o Monopolies of knowledge favor some media over others  Bias of Communication (1948) o Media creates systems of knowledge and classes of knowledge creators The Toronto School: McLuhan  The Gutenberg Galaxy (1962)  Understanding media: the extensions of man (1964) o “The medium is the message” Reading: Innis-Bias of Communication 1. What does he mean by the “bias” of communication? (204) a. Different forms of media have a different characters of knowledge, creating a monopoly of knowledge 2. Discuss the difference between space-biased and time biased media? (212) a. Time-based media(parchment) favor decentralization b. Spaced-biased media (paper) favor centralization 3. What are monopolies of knowledge and how do they function? (206 & 214- 216) a. Different forms of media create power structures shaping transfers of knowledge b. Then the culture creates a power structure, who has access etc. c. Stone and hieroglyphics was exposed to competition from papyrus as a new and more efficient media d. Paper is the new medium and an elaborate system of pictographs is the new written technology e. Different types of media impacted on the nature of communication and the communicative process which, over time, changed the nature of the civilization 4. What is meant by the phrase “the monopoly of knowledge invited to competition of a new medium? (214) a. New medium and new technology have been developed; the process of transition from an oral tradition to a literary culture there is the risk that divisions will occur and consequences will follow b. Monopoly is no longer in effect because new medias increased Summary Medium theory – media are mediums that create meaning & influence Contribution- innis influence on chicago school (communication as positive & cohesive source of social betterment); promoted holistic, interdisciplinary & interrelationship approach; birthed media ecology, highlights media impereialism Critique: technological determinism (tech as all-powerful social force), tech focus vs. processes of comm effects on society, mass media focused


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