CHS 200, Chapters 1-4 Notes
CHS 200, Chapters 1-4 Notes CHS 200
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Shelby Sauer on Tuesday September 20, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to CHS 200 at University of Nevada Reno taught by Dr. Logan Hamill in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 107 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Public Health Biology in Biology, Chemistry, Community Health Sciences, Core Humanities, Nutrition at University of Nevada Reno.
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Date Created: 09/20/16
CHS 200 Chapters 14 Notes Note: Anything that is highlighted was either on a quiz or specifically noted by Dr. Hamill as content that will be on the exam. So know these! Chapters 1&2 The origin of science is found in Greek philosophy. The Greeks cast aside anthropomorphism and instead sought natural, as opposed to supernatural, explanations of the world. Renewal owing to the reintroduction of the early Greek manuscripts by the Arabs from about 9th13th centuries Consequent renaissance of a preliminary form of scientific inquiry in the West from the 13th16th centuries Copernicus’s revolutionary publication of De revolutionibus orbium coelestium Copernicus believe that a suncentered planetary system offered a simpler, more exact, and more harmonious system of the universe than geocentrism. Both Copernicus and Kepler challenged Aristotle’s cosmological system. Galileo’s eradication of Aristotle’s organismic cosmology led to Newton replacing it with an entirely new framework. (mechanistic materialism) Significance of inquiry: Scientific inquiry is most important in understanding and making advancements in science Chapter 4 The public health triad describes the interactions among humans, animals and the environment using healthrelated consequences. Studying ALL of these factors help us gain a more holistic approach to health research. World Health Organization (WHO) links tighter in developing and underdeveloped nations. WHO openly and strongly stresses the cooperation between human, veterinary and environmental public health professionals. (practices studying all factors of public health triad) Many historical and current human diseases originated from animal hosts. (Zoonoses) (75% of infectious diseases worldwide). Disease Type Host Plague Bacterium Rodents Anthrax Bacterium Cattle, Sheep Tuberculosis Bacterium Mostly Cattle Lyme Disease (Deer) Vector Borne/Bacterium Rodents West Nile Fever Vector Borne/Virus Birds and small mammals Ebola Virus Virus Undetermined animal reservoir or chimps, gorillas, forest antelope Avian Influenza Virus Birds SARS (severe acute Virus Possibly several animal hosts respiratory syndrome) like cats, ferrets or bats. Undetermined HIV/AIDS Virus NHPNonHumans (chimps) Modification of natural habitat by humans is a leading cause of emerging zoonoses Reemergence of zones that were thought to have been controlled, such as bovine tuberculosis in Great Britain. HIV/AIDS has killed more than 25 million people since it was first recognized in 1981 VectorBorne diseases are infectious diseases (bacterial or viral) that are transmitted via an arthropod Biodiversity is the number, variety and range of organisms and genes within an ecosystem. Extinction event is the rapid loss of biodiversity. Biologically Active Substances (BAS) has the ability to alter the biological function of an organism. (metabolic activity for example). Highly specific BASs can be used as natural remedies. Greenhouse gases (CO2, Water Vapor, methane and ozone) in the air are caused by combustion of fossil fuels and changes of the land use by humans (Habitat Modification) Many diseaseharboring parasites and vectors are affected by rainfall, humidity and temperature changes Slight increase of temperature from 19⁰C to 21⁰C shortens the interval between blood meals (gonotrophic cycle) for mosquitos Biomagnification is the accumulation of an element or compound up the food chain (a deer may only have 2 particles of a compound but a cougar would have more particles after consuming multiple deer) Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act in 1980 heavily taxed the chemical and petroleum industries to create a “Super Fund” for maintaining hazardous waste sites. Chapter 3 Genetics is the study of inherited biological variation, and it is instructive to view the history of the discipline in the context of insights into the sources and nature of that variation. Darwin recognized the variation rule, which led to the development of his revolutionary theory of evolution by natural selection. Gregor Mendel demonstrated the presence of factors (now known as genes) that carry hereditary information from generation to generation and contribute to the differences in appearance of individual organisms. Developed laws of segregation (the distribution of chromosomes during the formation of egg or sperm) and of independent assortment (principle that different genes are distributed independently into egg and sperm). Independent assortment explains why it is possible to look like a certain family member, but not have the same medical conditions or traits and vice versa. Walter Sutton and Theodore Boveri proposed that genetic material is carried on the chromosomes (Chromosome Theory of Inheritance) James Watson and Francis Crick developed the doublehelix model of DNA Alleles are alternate versions of the same gene. Virtually all diseases have a genetic basis, including those that occupy the daytoday activities of primary care providers and public health professionals Ethical, Legal and Social Implications (ELSI) are important in the consideration of new genetics tests, treatments and technologies. Genetics services are currently funded by individual patients and by private and public organizations including Medicaid, Children with Special Health Care Needs (CSHCN), Title V, state tax revenues, and insurers. Medicaid does not cover many genetics tests Tests may not be covered if they are being performed only to provide information for another family member. Most consultations with clinical geneticists are covered by thirdparty payers, including Medicaid About 510% of breast cancers among women result from inherited mutations in genes known as BCRA1 and BCRA2 Women who carry BCRA1 or BCRA2 have a lifetime risk as high as 85% for breast cancer. If someone and their clinician decide they have an increased risk for breast cancer their best option regarding genetics testing is to test an affected member of the family first.
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