Chapter 2 Review Notes
Chapter 2 Review Notes Pols 1101
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by D'Angel Brooks on Tuesday September 20, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Pols 1101 at Georgia State University taught by Dr. Lakeyta Bonnette in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 66 views. For similar materials see American Government in Government at Georgia State University.
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Date Created: 09/20/16
Chapter 2 : The Founding and The Constitution Founding era included : who was excluded from citizenship, and citizens were afraid that officials would abuse their authority. The First Founding: Ideas, Interests, and Conflicts Americans had different financial interests prior to the Revolution depending on if they were o New England Merchants o Southern Planters o Royalists o Shopkeepers, artisans, & laborers o Small farmers Problems with Britain "No taxation without representation" Stamp Act Sugar Act Boston Massacre Boston Tea Party Declaring Independence First Continental Congress – boycott of all Britain taxes Second Continental Congress – decided to draft Declaration of Independence Jefferson and The Declaration Jefferson was the "sole" originator The Declaration was written by Jefferson and adopted by the Second Continental Congress Asserted that certain rights ("unalienable rights") could not be infringed upon by the governments. The Articles of Confederation & Perpetual Union Adopted in 1777, ratified 1781 Americas governing document until 1789 Issues : Weak central gov. , legislative dominance, no executive branch, execution of laws was left to individual states -John Adams and Britain Shay's Rebellion – involved farmers and merchants who rebelled against possible seizure of land Shay's rebellion showed the weaknesses of a nation w/ no central government , inability to protect internal and external borders, lack of respect internationally Constitutional Convention 1787 Established central government and strong executive branch Congress - Power to declare war, power to raise national military , bicameral legislation Separation of powers - system of checks and balances Test question – Congress has 2 chambers ( House: 435 members; based on population and Senate:100 members; 2 per state) Large-Small State Compromise/Great Compromise The Virginia Plan The New Jersey Plan Representation according to population Equal Representation Supported by the large states Supported by small states Three-Fifths Compromise The population of slaves in a state would count three-fifths of a white person. Southern states – count slaves to increase representation Northern states – slaves not citizens , should not be counted Differences between Constitution and Articles The Constitution: - increased the power of the central government - wanted to get rid of excessive democracy - limited the potential for government abuse The Constitution The Constitution: elaborate checks and balances, Bill of Rights Constitutionalism: idea that there are lawful restrictions on governments power; restraints on majority power Judicial action: the use of courts as a means of asserting rights and interests; this is the way ordinary citizens can exercise power The Seven Articles of the Constitution Article I: sets forth the powers and structure of the legislative branch Article II: wanted to provide a strong and "energetic" executive branch Article III: deals with the selection and powers of the federal judiciary Article IV: promote national unity and power – states must give "full faith and credit" to acts of other states; guarantees citizens of any state the "privileges and immunities" of every other state Article VI: supremacy clauses states that the Constitution are the supreme law of the land Article V: tells the steps that are needed to amend the Constitution - Amendments can be proposed by 2/3 votes in the House and Senate OR by passed in a national convention called by Congress in response to petitions by 2/3s of the states. Federalists Antifederalists Property owners, creditors, merchants small farmers, debtors, shopkeepers Wanted stronger central government wanted to retain power in the state governments Feared excessive democracy and promotion more democracy of political elites Madisonian Model Many bills die in the Committee To place as much of government beyond direct control of the majority o Only the House is directly elected by people. Separation of powers, yet powers are shared between branches Checks and balances, requires consensus. EX: veto, judicial review, etc. Federalism, sharing power between states and national government Implication of Madison's Model Slow Policy Change - favors the status quo change requires winning at all points in the process - small minorities in the government can block majorities (Ex: president's veto) - results in limited or smaller government - enhances minority rights which is often frustrating the majority - often seen as extremely inefficient
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