POLS 220, Week 5 Class 1
POLS 220, Week 5 Class 1 POLS 220
University of Louisiana at Lafayette
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POLS 220 001
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Landry Notetaker on Tuesday September 20, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to POLS 220 at University of Louisiana at Lafayette taught by Bryan P. Frost in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 6 views. For similar materials see World Politics in Political Science at University of Louisiana at Lafayette.
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Date Created: 09/20/16
Great Britain Early History High Points: Evolution describes Britain - Britain has No constitution day - Evolves over a thousand years o US and France= revolution When Britain became Britain - Emerges on the map as a country in 1066 A.D. o The last successful invasion of Great Britain Accomplished by William Duck of Normandy (William the Conqueror) Known as Norman Conquest o Napoleon and Hitler tried and failed No one since William has every conquered the island nation - Last successful invasion o How did it occur and why did it take place? William, Duke of Normandy Father, Duke Robert of Normandy o Bastard son Father died when he was seven years Possessed a lot of tenacity and energy As he grew up, he began to assert his right of Normandy o Put down many rebellions and was able to assert authority over Normandy at a young age Many people impressed with his skill o What is happening in England at this time? Edward the Confessor was in power Edward dies in 1066 o Only one obligation as a king Heir Died without an heir o On his death bed Asked a powerful aristocrat to become the new king, Herald Herald has a small amount of monarchy blood William outraged when he finds out Herald is the new king Two reasons why: o If anybody should be king of England, it should be him has a closer alliance to the family than Herald o Based on the Bayeux Tapestry Reasons why William invades Herald was one day sailing in the English channel and his ship blew onto ground in Normandy o Holds him for ransom o During this time, become good friends o Decides to send Harold back to England without any ransom o Before herald left, they made an agreement: o When Edward the Confessor dies, Herald will invite William to be king and Herald will be Lieutenant Herald decides to become king himself, not thinking William would be able to conquer him William seeks support from the Catholic Church o Herald broke an oath to God o Pope needs to endorse my endeavor As long as you allow the church to have power in Great Britain William’s nobles are on board because of land Becomes a Holy Crusade William is able to cross English Channel and with daring maneuvers beats Herald at the Battle of Hastings in 1066AD Conqueror of Britain and still Duke of Normandy o Affects of this Invasion Political, religious, and historical implications Politically o William established feudalism throughout England Religiously o The Catholic Church which sanctioned William’s invasion asserts its authority in England with ever greater force The official church of England Historically o From 1066 on, you can’t write a history about Europe without talking about England Becomes European Inside of England AFTER the Conquest - 1154-1189AD o Origin of English COMMON LAW William and his sons had to wait a long time to make any real changes in the country The first big change, internally, in 1154 by Henry the 2 nd Creating the foundations of English common law Henry wants to bring England under a SINGLE system of justice and law and curb if not eliminate regional differences of how law is enforced around the country and unify customs o At the time, aristocrats enforced laws Huge differences in the quality of justice Henry wants to unify the country when it comes to law and order o Better to have a single system of justice o Lesson the power of the aristocrats and increase his own power How did he unify the country? o Criminal cases Extended the concept of “the King’s peace” to include all criminal acts throughout the country The king is going to make all those criminal cases only be tried in his courts o Civil cases Process of appeal Appeal the case to king courts and king gives the final decision o All the civil cases come to the courts as well o To make the system work, he had to make sure that he gave and dispensed GOOD justice Trial by jury Bring individuals to bare witness to the proceedings before the court o Great invention that proved very attractive o Over time, other practices make their way into the courts A judge Cross examination of witnesses Oaths Legal representation Public trials o After a short period of time, the king’s courts have decided on a large number of cases People begin to say that these cases established LEGAL PRECEDENT England was now defining what was legal and illegal, lawful and unlawful, and what the punishment would be The idea is NOT to codify the law in hard and fast rules o You look to the spirit of the law (custom and precedent) Common law also called Judge made law o Common law comes from judges’ decisions not legislation Magna Carta (1215) - Single recognized document in the English speaking world - Came about as the result of what king henry the 2 nddid o Nobles not happy do lose their power to rule cases Getting tired to have to fight wars in Europe and France for the king They were becoming English o King at the time: King John Angry king Ignored nobles’ advice and direction - Finally, in 1215, the aristocrats had enough o On June 15,1215, they invited him to Runny Mead Field Put a document before him and told him to sign it or else Magna Carta o John signed it and violated every aspect of it Caught attention - It is NOT a democratic document o It is a reactionary conservative document Nobles wanted to protect their privileges Two customs that the nobles were very interested in protecting o Laid out that law is higher than the king King must obey his own laws o Before the king could tax his nobles, he had to consult with them No taxation without consultation The Origin of Parliament: - Magna carta inadvertently creates Magna Carta - King called to consult nobles o Took place in the Great Council Advice about taxation etc. The nobles ask why they have a regular meeting place where the council could meet and the king could seek our advice o Origin of the House of Lords Westminster - The king consults nobles because he wants money o King can’t tax aristocrats Money is located in the new entrepreneurial middle class o They would ask the various bureaus and shires to send to London representatives Let king here grievances and king will solve them In a better position to tax them o Permanent representatives have their own house House of Commons - Inversion takes place over time o House of Commons is where the money is Approve any and all taxes o House of Lords Spiritual body
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