Chapter 4 Lecture Notes (psych of gender)
Chapter 4 Lecture Notes (psych of gender) PSY 216
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Mina Sezan on Tuesday September 20, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSY 216 at University of Arizona taught by Dr. Heidi A. Hamann in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 7 views. For similar materials see Psych of Gender in Psychology (PSYC) at University of Arizona.
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Date Created: 09/20/16
9/20 Ch. 4 Sex-related comparisons: Observations Maccoby and Jacklin’s (1974) Psychology of Sex Difference First comprehensive review concluded that only four domains showed sex differences: o Verbal ability (girls); visual-spatial ability, mathematical ability, aggression (boys) Issues with this review: a narrative review meaning one study could have had 100 participants and another having 50 participants but both being weighted the same Summarizing the studies Many problems with their review (Block, 1976) o Narrative review o Averaged across studies that varied widely in methodological rigor o Age bias; gender intensification (boys and girls go to their extremes toward their gender roles) during adolescence Block’s review added some domains to list In the 1980s There was a New Way to Review Studies: META-ANALYSIS Meta-analysis is a statistical tool that quantifies results of a group of studies Both significance and size of the difference Effect size, d statistic (Cohen, 1977), o (d statistic) Help us quantify how much the difference is but doesn’t tell you the meaning of the difference o .2 = small effect, <1% variance o .5 = medium effect, <6% variance o .8 = large effect, <14% variance Effect size doesn’t necessarily tell you how meaningful the difference is Advantages and Disadvantages to Meta-Analysis Advantages o Considers size of effects so not all studies weighed similarly o Can examine influence of moderating variables Disadvantages o Exclusionary criteria are subjective o File-drawer problem When people do a study and they don’t find significant differences, and sometimes it doesn’t get published so it “metaphorically” gets put into a file drawer General Intelligence (Comprehensive Assessment) Most recent studies show no significant differences between men and women o Potentially more variability among males (more likely represented at both high and low) Spatial Ability Think and reason using mental images rather than words o Walking down the hall, playing video games, you don’t really realize it Spatial visualization o Example: finding the simple shape in a complex one When you play where’s waldo o Small gender difference; males score slightly higher (d= 0.19) Spatial Perception o Example: matching one shape while ignoring “conflicting” information Pilot, when they get trained to see what’s going on with the horizon Favors males o Males moderately better overall (d=0.44), but… o Some studies show differences erased by training If you train someone the overall effect size goes down o Rod and frame test- align a rod within these frames so that the rod is vertical Spatial Ability o Mental rotation Sculpting, understand how to rotate a sculpture to make it look a certain way Mental rotation test (rotate an object to see if it’s the same as another object) Mental rotation test_ are these two figures the same except for their orientation o See largest gender differences (d=.56) o Differences may be more related to speed than accuracy Men use more holistic strategy and women compare certain features Other Sex Differences in Spatial Abilities Men also excel in accuracy at hitting a target Women outperform men on object location memory tasks (d= 0.23 – 0.27) How might this affect direction-giving? o Women give more based on landmarks? Object location o Men more likely to give based on distance and directional terms? Mathematical Ability Sex differences in math in general population are small to zero and decreasing over time However: o Math SAT scores still favor men (especially at upper levels) o Females receive better math grades in school o Males slightly more confident in math (d= 0.15) Verbal Performance Females somewhat better at verbal fluency (d= .33), but… Meta-analysis showed extremely small overall differences in overall verbal ability (d=.11) Emerging evidence favoring females in writing skills and reading abilities (d= .44) What does All this mean in Actual Life More perception of differences than actual ones o And we know perceptions influence our behavior! Some focus on impact of training to reduce differences Too often, simple (non-researches based) “reverse engineering” justification made to connect disparities and abilities
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