Chapter 6 Notes
Chapter 6 Notes PY 372
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Danielle Jones on Tuesday September 20, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PY 372 at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa taught by William Peter Hart in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 40 views. For similar materials see Social Psychology in Psychology at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa.
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Date Created: 09/20/16
Chapter 6 Conformity and Social Influence 3 types of social influence ˗ Conformity: a change in your behavior or beliefs to agree with others ˗ Not explicitly asked to change ˗ Compliance: yielding to a request for certain behaviors ˗ Explicitly asked to change ˗ Obedience: a change in behavior or beliefs as a result of the commands or others in authority ˗ Different from request; you have to change Examples ˗ I Follow the speed limit of 50 mph on the McFarland ˗ This is obedience because it’s a rule you have to follow ˗ I buy a similar style of shoes I see people on campus wear ˗ This is conformity because you’re changing or adopting a style to fit in ˗ Someone asks you to donate to a charity ˗ This is compliance because you have a choosing to follow someone’s request Conformity 2 types of conformity: informational social influence and normative social influence Informational social influence: conformity from accepting evidence provided by other people ˗ You assume other people have more information than you or are right and you confirm to be right ˗ Ex: Sherif autokinetic effect: negotiating reality with other people Normative social influence: Conformity based on a desire to fulfill others’ expectations ˗ You conform in order to be liked ˗ People will change their behavior in order to be accepted by others ˗ Ex: Asch Line Study ˗ https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=qA-gbpt7Ts8 ˗ 37% or responses were confirming ˗ However, when participants were able to write their answer instead of saying them out loud, people confirm significantly less When do people conform ˗ Group size+unanimity: greater group size usually produces more conformity, especially when group is unanimous ˗ Cohesion: people in tight-knit groups conform more in that group (than they would alone) ˗ Status: people conform more to what powerful people do ˗ Public response: people confirm more when they must respond publicly ˗ Public commitment: making a public commitment to your position decreases conformity to an alternative position Compliance: Getting People to Say Yes Door in the face technique: After a person turns down a large request, people are more likely to comply when the requester offers a smaller more reasonable request ˗ Ex: blood donor study ˗ People were asked if they would commit long term to donating blood regularly for a year (everyone said no) ˗ Participants were then asked to just donate a single unit of blood tomorrow ˗ 50% agreed ˗ When only asked to donate blood tomorrow, only 32% agreed to Reciprocation (Norm of Reciprocity): an expectation that people will help those who have helped them ˗ Ex: when receiving a charity request in the mail with a small gift (a keychain) ˗ 35% donated money ˗ Only 18% donated with the gift Principle of social proof: we determine what is correct by looking to others ˗ “Everyone else is doing it, so I probably should too” ˗ Ex: tip jars, best-selling, fastest-growing Scarcity: things you do not or cannot have become more valuable ˗ Ex: “Limited edition” or “for a limited time only” Obedience Milgram wanted to know what percentage of people would deliver a lethal electric shock to another person because they were instructed to do ˗ https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=xOYLCy5PVgM ˗ 65% of people administered what they thought was a lethal shock The study was repeated to examine the characteristics of the authority figure that led to obedience ˗ Power: status or prestige of the person given the command ˗ The older experimenter was replaced with a young research assistant ˗ The assistant made sure to say that he was a just a research assistant ˗ Only 20% of participants obeyed all the requests ˗ Immediacy: more influential when the experimenter is close ˗ Instead of being in the same room with the participants, the experimenter phoned in commands ˗ Only 21% of participants obeyed all the requests ˗ Number: more influential when more teachers are giving commands The study was repeated to examine what characteristics of the situation influence obedience ˗ Emotional distance of the victim ˗ When the participant was able to administer shocks via remote and couldn’t the learner yell and plead, nearly 100% of participants obeyed ˗ Institutional authority ˗ Original study was done at Yale University ˗ Yale gives off a level or prestige and status that influenced participants to follow all commands ˗ When the study was done in an office in Bridgeport CT instead of Yale, only 48% obeyed ˗ Presence of resisters ˗ When 2 defiant teachers didn’t obey were added only 10% of participants obeyed Resisting Social Pressure Reactance: a motive to protect or restore one’s sense of freedom ˗ Arises when someone threatens our freedom of action ˗ “I want to do it because you’re preventing me from doing it” ˗ Labels of objectionable material on media have the opposite effect of making this material more attractive (forbidden; Bushman & Cantor, 1983) Asserting uniqueness: people want to be somewhat different from others ˗ People feel uncomfortable when they appear exactly like everyone else ˗ feel better when they see themselves as moderately unique
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