Tissues PowerPoint BIOL 2220
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This 8 page Class Notes was uploaded by Victoria Hills on Tuesday September 20, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to BIOL 2220 at Clemson University taught by John Cummings in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 5 views. For similar materials see Human Anatomy and Physiology I in Biology at Clemson University.
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Date Created: 09/20/16
ClemsonUniversity Fall 2016 Tissues Slide 1: Tissues Start with the chemical level oflife that makes upcells Cells make uptissues Tissue: 2ofmorecells that areeither the sameor differentthat functiontogether for acommonpurposeor tasks Histology: Studyoftissues Slide 2: EpithelialTissue- Covering and lining All freebodysurfacesofthebodyarecoveredwithcoveringandlining epithelial tissue Anypart ofthebodythat is exposedto theexternalenvironmentalso havecovering andlining epithelial tissue - Mouth Entry to ahollowtube essentially This means that anything inside the tubeis consideredto beoutsidethe body/externalenvironment - Foodthatis chewedandswallowed is consideredto beoutsidethe body Thereforethehollowtubeofthe digestive tract will havecoveringandlining epithelial tissue - In additionto the hollowtubeofthe digestive tract, the reproductive,digestive, respiratory,andcardiovascular tractsalso havecoveringandlining epithelium Slide 3: EpithelialTissue- Glandular Glandular epithelial tissuemakes upglands Ex: Adrenalgland(Sits ontop ofthekidney) *Coveringandlining and glandular epithelial tissue bothlookdifferentbecausethey do differentthings dueto their composition Slide 4: FunctionsofEpithelialTissue Establish boundaries: - Coveringandlining epithelial tissue separatesthebodyfromtheexternal environment Protection: - The exterior boundaryisaformofprotection - Epithelial tissue is thefirst line ofdefensethatfunctions in keepingpathogens outofthe body Absorption: - Pathogensthat do enter thebodymust beabsorbed - Selective absorptionoccursintheformoffiltration, essential Filtration: - Basically atype ofabsorptionbasedonsizeofsubstances o Smaller things canpasswhile larger things cannotpass Excretion: - Substancesthat get into our bodyhaveto passthroughepithelial tissue - Therefore,substancesthatgo outofthe bodyalso haveto passthrough epithelial tissue(Excretion) Secretion: - Sometimes epithelial tissueproducessomethingto be released - Ex: Glandular epithelium producessecretionsfromglands Sensory reception: - Epithelial tissue hasthe ability to respondto stimuli fromthe environment - All bodysurfaceshaveepithelium onit andour bodieshaveto beable to respondto stimuli in theenvironment Slide 5: Boundariesof EpithelialTissue Apicalsurface: - Freeandexposedto theexternalenvironment - Superficial surface Basalsurface: - Deepportion - Away fromtheexternalenvironment - Attached to connective tissue underneathit(Why connectivetissue is called connectedtissue- Connectsonething to another) Tissues will lookdifferentbasedonwhat their function is (Simple, squamous,etc.) - Atissue in spotofthe bodycanlookdifferentin another partofthebody Slide 6: Basement Membrane Therecanbe modifications to the plasmamembrane - Tissues arecomposedofmultiple cells andthecells haveconnectionsbetween them - Ex: Tight junctions, desmosomes Basallayer ofepithelial tissue: - Beforetheconnectivetissue (In betweenthe epithelial tissue andconnective tissue) thereis abasementmembrane Basement membrane has2components: 1) Basallamina: - Portionjust at thebasalsurfaceofthe epithelium - Stained black andis thethin line - Anon-cellular sheetofglycoproteins(Proteinswith carbohydratesextending off)that canbeusedto attach to other things Basallamina is an anchor/adhesivesheetofproteinessentialto holdthe epithelial sitting ontopof the connectivetissue in place - Basallamina also acts asa selective filter becausetheproteinscouldalso be channelproteins Important becauseall living cells needto besuppliedwith bloodbutepithelial tissuesareavascaular (Containno bloodvessels) o Important for thebloodto bedeliveredto the basalcells ofthe epithelium in theconnective tissue whereit passesfromtheconnective tissue out throughthebasallamina to reachtheepithelial tissue because: Bloodisneededfor glucosedelivery, picking upwaste suchas carbondioxide,etc. 2) Reticularlamina: - In thepicture, it iswherethe arrowislocated Blurry,yellow-orange region - The reticular lamina is a collectionofcollagen fibers - Collagenis the mostabundantproteinin the body (Connective tissuesin generalhavealot offibersin them that couldbecollagen, reticular, etc.) o Collagenfunctions inproviding strength to tissues o Elastic fibersfunctionin providingstretch andflexibility o Reticular fibers:Functionasa meshnetwork that holdsthings together - Therearecollagenfibersthat strengthenthe attachment betweenthe epithelium andunderlyingreticular lamina - Overall: Reticular lamina is filled with collagenfibersfor strengthand attachment Slides 7-11:Covering and LiningEpithelium Canclassify coveringandlining epithelium basedonthe number ofcellspresentin the tissue Simple epithelium: - Only have1 layer ofcells - Functionin absorptionandfiltration - DoesNOT reallyprovidealot ofprotectionor other functions - Locatedinareasnotexposedto alot ofwear andtear or friction Otherwise, simple epithelium wouldbreakapart Stratified epithelium: - Morethan1layer ofcells - Major functionis protectionin areasexposedto alotofwear andtear and friction - Locatedonthesurfaceoftheskin - Skin is thin onthe headandthick onthe feetdueto howmuch pressurethey’re exposedto - Namestratified epithelium basedonthecells located atthe apical surface Pseudostratified epithelium: - Only 1 cell layer thick butit lookslike morethan 1layer dueto thenuclei appearingasif theyareeveryoneandnotjust locatedat thebasal portionofthe single cell layer - Foundinpartsnot exposedto alotofmovement suchasthe lining ofthe respiratorytract Not alot offrictionor changein shapeoccurshere Canalso define coveringandlining epithelium basedontheshapeofthecells Squamous epithelium: - 1cell layer offlatcells Cuboidalepithelium: - Box-like or cellsthat have thewidth thesame astheheight Columnarepithelium: - Column-shapedor cell that aretaller than theyarewide Transitionalepithelium: - Cells areshapedlike domesontheapical surface - Linehollow cavities suchas theurinarybladder - Whenthebladder is empty, cells aredome-shaped,butasthe bladder startsto fill up,the cells changeto aflattened shapeto allow morespacein thecavity without changing thesize ofthe cavity - Assoonasstretchoccur onthe urinarybladder,asignal issent to the brainfor the bladder to empty itself, andthe flattened cells transition backto therelaxed dome-shapeagain Slide 12:GlandularEpithelium Composeglands Gland:Cell or groupofcellscomposedofglandular epithelium that secrete substancesinto ductsthat takes the secretionto whereit shouldbe, onto surfacesof cells, or into thebloodfor it to travel elsewhereto do something Wherethey secretetheir substancesdependsonthetypeofgland It is possiblefor thereto beunicellular glandsin the body Energyis requiredinorder to makea secretoryproduct andto secreteit (Via packaging thesecretionup somehowandgetting it out oftheepithelium) Mostglands produceawater-basedsecretion(Somewill be fat-basedthough) Slides 13/14:Types ofGlands Exocrine: - Glandsthat secreteinto aduct - Secretionfromtheglandular epithelial tissue is secretedinto a duct that moves fromhighto low concentration to haveits effect somewhereelse - Someexocrineglandssecreteonlyonto the exterior cellsurfacewhereit collects o Ex: Gobletcells - Ex: Sweat glandsandgallbladder Endocrine: - Glandsthat do notsecreteinto ducts - Secretehormonesthattravel inthe bloodstreamto go somewhereelse - Ex: Thyroidglandand pancreas-Uniquebecauseit hasexocrine(Ductdelivers secretionsto small intestine) andendocrine(Secreteshormonesto regulate bloodsugar inthe bloodstream)functions Slide 15/16:StructuralClassification ofGlands Unicellular: - Lookatthe number ofcellsthat make up thegland—Someglandscan be unicellular - Picture: o Gobletcells arepartofthe digestive system that areunicellular mucous glands o Gobletcells producemucous o Mucous:Secretion ofamucousgland that secretesmucinprotein o Mucousgoesto thesurfaceonthelining oftheGI tract andprevents digestion ofthebody’sowndigestive track - Respiratorytract: o Secretesmucousonthesurfaceofcells o Anyparticles in the air will stick to the mucousandwon’treachthe lungs *Bothfunctionsofmucoussecretionsareprotective Multicellular: - Havemorethan 1cell - Makesthe differencebetweensimple duct structurewith no branchesandthe compoundductstructurewith branching o Asa result,onecan further classifymulticellular glandsinto different groups Slides 17/18:FunctionalClassification Glandscanalso bebasedonhowthecell releasesits productandnotjust onwhere it goes Merocrine glands: - Cells produce secretoryproductsthatgetpackagedin theGolgi apparatusina vesicle Secretoryproductsgetreleasedfromthevesicle andcell via exocytosisinto theduct whereit travels whereit needsto go - Keypoints: o Merocrineglandcells arenotdamagedandstill intact after thereleaseof secretoryproducts o Merocrineglandcells stayaroundto continueto producemoresecretory products - Ex: Salivaryglands, sweat glands,andthe pancreasalluse merocrineformof activity Holocrineglands: - Cells producesecretoryproductsthatgetstoredinaninclusion - Wholecell thensloughsoffinto theduct whereit then burstsopento releaseits contents - Keypoint: o Holocrineglandcell dies in theprocessofreleasingsecretoryproducts o Haveto replaceholocrineglandcell viamitosis asaresult - Ex: Sebaceousglands(Oil glandsassociatedwith hair)useholocrineformof activity Slide 19/20:Connective Tissue All connective tissue isderivedfromthe sameembryonictissue, the mesenchyme (Middle embryoniclayer) althoughthey don’tall looklike eachother 4basic classesofconnectivetissue: a) Connective tissue proper: Areolar,denseregular,andelastic connective tissues b) Cartilage: Elastic cartilage, fibrocartilage,andhyaline cartilage c) Bone: Hardesttissue ofthe body d) Blood: Only liquid tissue ofthe body *All contain samestructuralelements Slide 21:StructuralElements All connective tissue classeshavethesame structuralelements: a) Ground substance: - Backgroundsubstance - Bone:Hardbecauseitis calcified - Blood:Liquiddueto theplasma portionoftheblood b) Fibers: - Locatedinthe backgroundinthe fiber matrix - Largecollagenfibersprovidestrength - Reticular fibersallow stretch c) Cells: - All connective tissueshavetheir ownspecific types ofcells - Ex: Fibroblastsinareolar connectivetissue Slide 22:MuscleTissue Muscle tissuecells aremodified for contraction All types ofmusclerespondto stimuli bygetting shorter (contracting) Includes: Muscle tissueis foundin thelining ofthedigestive tract, heart, smoothmuscle, and skeletal muscle give localmotion Whenmuscle contracts,movement occurs - Ex: Heartmuscle tissue: o Contractionofthe heartmakesbloodmove - Ex: Smoothmuscletissue: o Contractionpushesameal throughthedigestive tract Whenmuscle tissuecontracts, heatis generated(Althoughmot heatthat is generatedisthroughmetabolic action throughthefoodconsumed) - Specifically, shiveringis anexample that requiresmuscletissue andcontractsto generateheat All muscle tissue contains: - Sarcolemma: Plasma membraneofamuscle cell madeupofa phospholipid bilayer - Sarcoplasm:Cytoplasm ofamuscle cell Slide 24-27:MuscleTissue Types Overall classification criteria usedto differentiateonetype ofmusclefromanother: - Striations - Nervouscontrol-Voluntaryor involuntary - Number ofnuclei Skeletal MuscleTissue: - Striated - Eachmuscle fiber is amuscle cell that all runright nextto eachother very compactly andlooklike lanesona highway - Multi-nucleated - Embryologicaldevelopment: o One cell emergeswith another onethenanother oneemergesso that eventually they all combine Nuclei in the musclecells end upgetting pushedtowardstheedgesandarenotlocated in themiddle ofthe cell - Voluntary Humanis ableto determinewhen andhowmuch skeletal muscle tissue contracts - Summary: Skeletal muscle tissue isstriated, multi-nucleated, andvoluntary Cardiac MuscleTissue: - Striated - Uni-nucleated - Involuntarycontraction and movement - Contain intercalateddiscs: o Communicating junctions that arelocatedbetween neighboringcells o Specifically: Channelproteinofonecell +channel proteinofanother cell fusetogether to createa connexon,whichultimately createsagap junction (Communicating junction) o Important becauseifthe compositionis changedinoneofthe neighboringcells, that certain componentthatwas changedcanalso be put in theconnectedneighboringcells AKAall arelinked together Ex: Musclecontractswhen it is excited Stimuli that excites one cell is sharedwith theother connectedcells downthe line o Overall: Cardiactissues contractsasa unit dueto intercalated discs rather than justas individual cells Smooth MuscleTissue: - SmoothandNOT striated - Uni-nucleated - Nuclei appear stretchin individual cells - Appearssimilar to denseregular connectivetissue - Involuntarycontractionand movement Slides 28-20:Nervous Tissue Neurons: - Allows the humanbodyto detect stimuli - Turnstimulus energyinto electrical energythat is then communicated throughoutthebody - 50%ofnervoustissueis consistedofneurons (Cells) that createelectrical impulses Neuroglia: - Rest ofthenervoustissuein thebackgroundis madeupofneuroglia,which means“nerveglue” - Cells that functionin holding all theneuronstogether +functionin supportand protection(Protects theimpulse createdbythe neurons) Slide 29:Summary of Tissue Types Epithelial Connective Muscle Nervous
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