Week 6 Lecture Notes - Monday
Week 6 Lecture Notes - Monday 1063
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Imelda Williams on Tuesday September 20, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to 1063 at Mississippi State University taught by Professer Hersey in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 34 views. For similar materials see Early U.S. History in History at Mississippi State University.
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Date Created: 09/20/16
Week of September 19 : The American Revolution 1063 Online Reader documents: 44, 45, 46, 410, 51, 52, 53, 54, 55 Monday September 19 th Mature Colonies at the Edge of an Empire Key Questions: What characterized each region of colonial British America? What held the British Empire together? What were some of the first indications that relationship between Britain and the colonies might be souring? The Upper South: The Chesapeake Region (Virginia, Maryland, and Northeastern North Carolina) Maryland became a religious refuge for Catholics. Lord Calvert, the first Lord Baltimore, had a convergence experience from Protestantism to another religion therefore forfeiting his position. He gets a charter to start a colony in the New World between 1620 and 1629. Unfortunately, he dies before he actually gets the chance to see his colony begin. His son founded the colony. Maryland encountered some of the same problems that Virginia encountered, but Maryland also learned from Virginia’s mistakes as well. Maryland’s economy was centered on tobacco, and was a part of what was called the Tobacco Belt. Maryland forbade religious discrimination, so there were actually more protestant settlers than Catholic. By 1650, the colony was completely up and running. th Maryland had a slave society by the early 18 century. Maryland did not develop any major cities. The colonists traded at individual plantations along the rivers. Tobacco Inspection Act: an act passed in 1730 to ensure the good quality of the tobacco; this act officially established an aristocracy Tobacco was the single most important unit of the Upper South. Where there was tobacco, there was slaves. The men identified themselves as “country gentlemen”. Week of September 19 : The American Revolution 1063 Online Reader documents: 44, 45, 46, 410, 51, 52, 53, 54, 55 The slave quarters were some of the largest houses in the colonies. The slaves were grouped by ability and were always watched by a white overseer. Slaves worked all year, but the work was usually not physically demanding until planting season. Planters governed the society. They had a democratic election, and you could only vote if you were white, male, and owned property. They did not have a private ballot. People would stand up and proclaim who they were voting for. The man who threw the best party with the best liquor usually won office. Anglicanism was the official religion to hold office. Baptists and Methodists were unpopular. Baptists were seen as killjoys, for they were against slavery, card playing, gambling etc. Baptists also had a lay ministry, where anyone could be a minister, whereas other religions needed college degrees to be able to be a minister. The Lower South: The Carolinas and Georgia The Lower South was known for sugar plantations. The Carolinas was founded in 1663 but people didn’t actually show up until 1669. It was born a slave colony, mostly growing crops like corn, raising hogs, and lumber to ship out to the Caribbean. Their cash crop in particular was rice, which required knowledge from the slaves since rice was originally from West Africa. Rice required a lot of land and a lot of slaves. Because of this, there were more people of African descent in the colony than of English descent. The Carolinas mainly did things to supply the British navy. Georgia was founded by the Georgia trustees after the Restoration in 1732. It was originally a military colony to protect the other colonies from Spanish threats. Georgia had utopian dreams ran by farming soldiers. Most of their colonists were debtors from England. Georgia was strictly regulated for 2 decades – no slaves, no rum, trade with local Indians was prohibited. It was a very stable colony In 1750, Georgia removed its regulations. In 1752 it became a royal colony. In 10 years, it started to look like the Carolinas. Georgia was a very dangerous place to live – full of swamps, alligators, and mosquitos. Week of September 19 : The American Revolution 1063 Online Reader documents: 44, 45, 46, 410, 51, 52, 53, 54, 55 Their slaves were between the ages of 16 and 18 and they usually lived until they were 26 years old. The slave population outnumbered the English and the English were afraid because of this. The Georgia colony operated off of the task system, which means that the slaves were given a number of tasks to do every week. The slaves usually finished these tasks in a few days and had leisure time to spare. During this time, slaves had the freedom to keep personal gardens and often traded with other slaves. The Stono Rebellion was a slave rebellion that occurred in 1739 where 2025 colonists were killed by slaves fighting for freedom. This resulted in laws that lessened the power of the slaves even more – no canoes, no firearms, no trading, no owning livestock, no giving slaves alcohol, and always under white supervision. Charleston and Savannah held two major forts that were surrounded by Englishmen, making them all feel more comfortable since most of them were outnumbered by their own slaves. There was always fewer mosquitoes in these areas, meaning fewer cases of malaria. The people of the Georgia colony were urbanites and cosmopolitans. The Frontier There was tension between the new settlers and the old settlers. They participated mostly in agriculture, whatever they could grow. They also drove livestock to their local markets. By the 1750s, every colony in the new world was mature. What Held the British Colonies Together? Salutary Neglect: the official policy meaning to leave the colonies to develop on its own This policy was founded in 1721 by Robert Walpole. Opponents of salutary neglect wanted to force colonists to make goods and buy British manufacturers only. The colonies were leaning more towards a laissezfaire government. Week of September 19 : The American Revolution 1063 Online Reader documents: 44, 45, 46, 410, 51, 52, 53, 54, 55 The colonies came up with Navigation Acts. This made the British empire a single trading entity. The British adored the monarchy. Monarchs were universally idolized and represented the nation. A royal government represented the crown’s interest. The colonies all had common enemies. Why did Things Fail? The colonies started to have preliminary rumblings during the 1740s and 50s. England began shifting their governmental policy towards abandoning salutary neglect. The Board of Trade intervenes into the Virginia Assembly government. In 1751, Governor Robert Dinwiddie concerned with advancing his own affairs. He institutes a new tax to regulate land sales called the Pistole Fee. The Pistole Fee wasn’t very high but it upset lots of people because Dinwiddie was filling in his own pockets. The people felt like it was unfair because taxes are supposed to voluntary but they were being taxed without representation so the fee was repealed.
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