NFS 143 Nutrition in the Lifecycle - Pre-pregnancy
NFS 143 Nutrition in the Lifecycle - Pre-pregnancy NFS 143
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This 2 page Class Notes was uploaded by Grace Cotrupi on Tuesday September 20, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to NFS 143 at University of Vermont taught by Farryl Bertmann in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 5 views. For similar materials see Nutrition in the life cycle in Nutrition and Food Sciences at University of Vermont.
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Date Created: 09/20/16
Nutritional Status Prior to Pregnancy Thursday, September 1, 2016 10:07 AM Nutritional needs during pregnancy Energy intake must increase during pregnancy/lactation. There is an increased metabolic rate (+15%). Increased need for carbs, fetuses need glucose (45-65% of food should be carb based). Pregnant and lactating women require an additional 25 g of protein. Having foods that have both carbs and proteins prevents a shock to the system. Weight gain during pregnancy depends on pre pregnancy weight Underweight BMI - 24-40 lbs gain Normal weight - 25-35 lbs Overweight - 15-25 lbs Obese - 11-20 More weight gain for twins Obese women typically gain no weight, however telling them this may encourage dieting which can result in nutrient deficiency. New guidelines allow for some weight gain. Fat No DRI for total fat. Linoleic acid (omega-6) and Linolenic acid (omega-3) contribute to brain and eye formation. Omega-6 and omega-3 use same receptors. American diet is common in omega-6, so a balance must be found with omega-3 (Chia seeds, salmon, ground flax seed, walnuts) Micronutrients Requirements for most micronutrients increase during pregnancy. Vitamin D, E, K and Calcium do not increase. DRI for iron is 27mg/day (iron is needed to for hemoglobin and form placenta) Magnesium is a cofactor in 300 enzymes. Deficiency is linked to miscarriage, fetal growth retardation, and preterm delivery. Zinc is important in first trimester, role in organ formation and possibly immune system development. Iodine supplementation is recommended for pregnant and lactating women. Prenatal vitamins are good, but general supplements can lead to overdose. WHOLE FOODS ARE ALWAYS BETTER. IT IS CUCIAL TO NOTE THAT IN THIS TIMELINE PREGNANCY BEGINS AFTER FIRST MISSED PERIOD Fetal Development A healthy pregnancy is an average of 40 weeks. There are three distinct stages o The zygote period Conception-2 weeks o The embryonic phase 8 weeks after conception embryo is approx. 1.25 inches long Complete central v=nervous system, heart beat, digestive system, fingers/toes, beginning of facial features. o The fetal phase Begins after 8th week Begins to take more human appearance. Genitals, hair, nails, vocal chords form Kidneys begin to process bodily fluids, liver beings to function Bones start to harden Final 12 weeks Rapid eye and brain development Immune system begins to mature Lungs develop Defects o Folic acid deficiency- first 4 weeks when nervous system is developing can cause neural tube defects o Iodine deficiency- mental retardation. Common Problems in Pregnancy Reflux (heartburn) Pica (craving nonfood items like paint chips, ice, dirt) Preeclampsia (dangerously high blood pressure and protein in the urine) o Sudden edema, weight gain, headaches, vision change o Occurs during pregnancy and up to 6 weeks post partum. Appears late second or third trimester.