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ECS232- Week 1 Notes

by: Taryn Dennie

ECS232- Week 1 Notes ECS 232

Marketplace > University of Miami > ECS 232 > ECS232 Week 1 Notes
Taryn Dennie

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This is the first week of notes which is included in our first test
Ecological Principles and Environmental Applications
Larry Brand
Class Notes
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Taryn Dennie on Tuesday September 20, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to ECS 232 at University of Miami taught by Larry Brand in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 3 views.

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Date Created: 09/20/16
Ecological Principles and Environmental Decisions August 23 - Only 1 millionth of the open ocean is occupied by bio-mass - Plants require light, nutrients, and water - Albedo is when light is reflected back out in to space it is called o Snow covered sea ice is high, while water and bare earth is lowest o So while ice melts, there is more water and bare land to absorb more heat = the Earth is warming - Heat capacity tells us how well (and fast) a material heats o Water has the highest (takes longest), while iron, copper, and sand has the lowest (takes shorter time) - Due to the Tibetan Plateau, the monsoonal system causes the summers to have incoming low pressure and the winters to have releasing high pressure - Hadley Cells (find graph) o As Hadley cells rotate, it picks up moisture and rains out (near Equator) and sinks back down while reheating (about 30 degrees) o Ferrel cells come down with warm, dry air (about 30 degrees) and come back around picking up cool wet air (about 60 degrees) - The Equator has highest runoff and precipitation, while deserts has the highest evaporation and lowest precipitation and runoff - Coriolis Effect states that an object in the air is subject to the air while the Earth rotates underneath it. All currents of air and water in the Northern Hemisphere bend to the right, while in the Southern Hemisphere they bend to the left o Trade winds blow from E to W - Summarize: Hadley cells flow with Northeast trade winds, Ferrel cells with Westerlies, and Polar cells with easterlies and there is mirror reflection in the Southern hemisphere with Southeast trade winds - Intertropical Convergence Zone - Orographic Precipitation o Up the mountain, rate of cooling decreases on the windward side and past the rain shadow, on the Leeward side rate of warming increases  You will get very different vegetation and ecosystems on each side of the mountain - Climate zones match relatively well with the biomes we see on Earth - Air and water currents are unpredictable and subject to variation- they disperse in to eddys Surface Water - Ekman Spiral o Surface water is a series of layers of water  Initially the surface layer will follow the surface air, then turn right and each layer follows suit  On average it net water transport is 90 degrees to surface wind - The interaction of trade winds and water currents creates a gyre system o In the N hemisphere gyres turn to the right, while in the S hemisphere they turn to the left - Currents are warm when flowing pole ward and cool when flowing away from the poles - Thermohaline circulation is caused by heating in lower latitudes and cooling in higher latitudes- density driven by temperature and salinity o Deep water formation off Greenland is driven by winter cooling and sinking of salty Gulf Stream water- starts the “conveyer belt” o This process takes about 1,000 years o Some upwells but the net flow follows the belt - The oldest waters are in the deep Pacific Ocean - Because plants need water, lights, and nutrients HOWEVER the problem with plant life in the ocean is that light only reaches the top 100 meters of the 4,000- meter deep ocean. But there are not nutrients in the top 100 meters - Big question: How can we get the cold, nutrient dense water to rise to the photic zone August 25 - Thermocline + Halocline = pyncocline - Sound velocity flows with pressure in deep water, but continues with temperature at the thermocline Physical Mechanisms - Diffusion ends up becoming negligible - Double diffusion (salt fingers)- thermal diffusion is 1000x more than iconic diffusion o Warm water salty water / cold water fresh water o Warm water rises, salty water sinks - Wind + wave mixing (storms) with Langmuir Circulation - Internal Wave breaking- random shelf breaking between light and heavy fluids o High productivity at the Continental Shelf because of this (burst of nutrients) - Tidal Mixing is when a lot of water is moving through a narrow or common pass - Current shears - Island Wakes- high productivity on the back side of island as you get a nutrient mix - Convective mixing- as winter or storms bring cooler water, the pycnocline becomes weaker and weaker bringing in more nutrients - Surface evaporation- when there’s more evaporation than rain falls, salt builds up and sinks = nutrients - Salting out- when sea ice forms, it pushes out the salt and it sinks down = bringing up nutrients - Fronts- - Estuaries o Drowned river mouth- eroded by water o Fjord- eroded by glaciers o Bar-built- lagoons form between barrier islands o Tectonic o Antiestuarine- There is more evaporation in the Mediterranean than rive flow = decreased surface water - Equatorial divergence (Coriolis Effect) - Coastal Upwelling- El Nino and La Nina - Baroclinic Transport - Cyclonic eddies


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