HIST 3045, Week 3 Notes
HIST 3045, Week 3 Notes HIST 3045
Popular in International History of the Cold War
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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Caroline Jok on Tuesday September 20, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to HIST 3045 at George Washington University taught by Dr. Paul Pitman in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 5 views. For similar materials see International History of the Cold War in History at George Washington University.
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Date Created: 09/20/16
International History of the Cold War The Division of Europe 13 September The division of Germany & Where the Cold War came from Dates and Actors important for this time Period § Stalingrad Winter: '42 - '43 § Elbe: 25 April '45 o River that the Americans and Soviets met on. *There was an agreement of where the two armies stop. § Teheran Nov '43 o First war time conference o Second front (May of 1644( § Home Army § D-Day: June '44 § Yalta: Feb '45 § "Percentages deal": Oct '44 § Churchill --> Clement Atlee § Sakhalin § Kurile Islands § Potsdam: July '45 o United Germany with 4 occupation zones o Conflict begins here. § Harry Truman (Apr. '45) § 1st Berlin Crisis: Jun '48 - May '49 § VE day: 8 May '45 § Riga: Axioms Argue this week: The cold war starts in Europe over Germany. (The German issue is the core) (Opposition, there are cold war feelings prior to it is clear that there will be a deadlock over Germany) The legacy of the World Wars: • The outcome of WW2 isn't peace, but rather a huge sense of insecurity. • There is no peace treaty with Germany at the end of WW2 - Failed Peace • Security becomes the watchword, but what does security mean? o The definition is much broader than the absence of war (peace) o A lot of people were looking for economic and social security o This is not only in the United States, also W. Europe Questions about the Cold War • Was it inedible? o Harper would argue yes, given the nature of the United States and Soviet Union as well as mistakes and misperceptions • What is this nature? • Who's to blame? What is the most important point at which compromise is no longer possible? (building up to • the cold war) o What is the most important point at which compromise is no longer possible? November 1946 - the Democrats lose many seats in Congress (another possible turning point) Background: • In WW2, it's not just a war between 2 alliances, but rather 2 political coalitions • Popular Front: Coalition of communist, socialist and centrist -> Everyone who is opposed to fascism (Coined in 1936 by the Communist Party) o 2 sides: • Fascists right: Monarchists Conservatives • Democrats, Republicans, Socialists, Communists, Farmers Parties (populists) • In many cases the communist would stop supporting the government and the traditional conservatives and monarchists would come in an vote for Christian and social democrats so that the fascists would be out, and the entire situation would move to the venter. • It's a reshuffling of the political balance within each country. '' Things that Happened during and after WW2 • From 1942 on, the main forces are Soviets and Americans vs. the Axis powers and will become the strongest parties once Germany is defeated • Stalingrad is the turning point in Russia • Summer 1943 - The Soviets are on the Offensive • November of 1943 - the Soviets have pushed the Germans out of the Soviet Union • Teheran occurs • Spring of 1944 Soviets had reached 1914 borders in Baltics and in Poland and stop leaving the Polish armies to be decimated and in the meantime, push down through the Balkans. • Yalta Conference, the Soviets are 100 miles from Berlin. They have captured all of the areas of Eastern and Central Europe that they will ever capture during WW2. • By 1945 and 46, the soviets and the united States have roughly equal military power. • Some of the Tensions? o The Americans depleted opening a second front in Europe o The Soviets complain that the UK and US are slow to invade western Europe. • Soviets have plans to set up such ornaments. • The Soviet • Spheres worried about the • Yalta - Feb'4 5 • Disagreement over Germany o No details o The most important thing is the demand for unilateral surrender of Germany because there will be no separate peace. • The United States is feeding Germany, with higher food rations than they themselves were getting in the United Kingdom. • Stalin wants a communist system in Germany, the railroads and bridges were down, but there were more factories in 1945 than before the war. --> A very imbalanced economy, more industry than it needs but no food • '46 - '47 o The Americans want to rebuild Germany because it is a major market for Western Europe o Sept. 1946 - Burns is still trying to negotiate a settlement with the Soviet Union, but makes a major shift by saying restrictions will be lifted from Germany o The Soviets want to hold on, and not rebuild the economy • 1947 Council of Foreign Minister's meeting deadlocks over reparations • 1st Berlin Crisis in 1948 o Introducing a new currency (RM was worthless) (New: The Deutschmark; printed in the US and secretly shipped to Germany in ammunition boxes) o Starts breaking Germany into separate economic zones • Hard currency and worthless currency • Instead of trying a military move to break the blockade, they supplied the East Germans with an Air Drop Think About it - Did there have to be a war? 1. Based on the Nature of the Countries 2. The Rules of the International system indicate that the peculiar balance of power indicated that there had to be a war 15 September Moscow CFM - March 1947 • Council of Foreign Ministers Truman Doctrine - March 1947 Marshall Plan Speech - June 1947 Com inform - September 1947 Andrei Zhdanov Prague Coup - February 1948 Berlin Blockade - 6/48 - 5/49 OEEC - 1948 EPV - 1950 NAT - April 1949 Background • There's a huge controversy in literature about who is to blame, but for now we are going to skip over this. • At what point more flexibility or fewer misunderstandings on each side might have made it possible to argue for a compromise. • It's really in 1947 that the argument over Germany really comes to a head at the Council of Foreign Minister's meeting • There was no peace treaty to end the war in Europe until 1991 • Possible end dates? o 1941 o 1952: End of the occupation regime in the west o Oct. 1954 o May 1949: Germany joins NATO • The point: After 1947 the east and west stopped cooperating in Germany with the exception about what to do about Berlin. • Neither east nor west Germany was allowed to have full control over nuclear weapons By 1946 each side believes they face an aggressive enemy that wants to extinguish its whole • way of life (communism or capitalism) • By 46, the cold war has begun for the authors of the telegrams. (Kenan & Novikov) Kennan: The Long Telegram • The report from Moscow • Kennan has been waiting to write this memo • Really well received in D.C. • Declassified in 1972 • Audience: State Department • Goal: Trying to present a picture of the Soviet Union to support a policy he prefers. • What is specifically communist about Kenan's description? • This starts the governments soviet-ology • Pg. 7 conspiracy within a conspiracy • Part 5: In order for the Soviet system to survive, the United States way of life must be undermined • What does Kennan actually suggest that the U.S. Government do? o US Gov. should educate public o Understand without emotion o The United States needs to be a strong society - Face internal problems • Kennan is suggesting that the US has diseased tissue o Lead by example. o Don't become a "garrison state" • Is he calling for war? Not necessarily, but a more aggressive and strong posture. • They will be aggressive if we don't step up. • Doesn't talk about political division the way that Novikov does • http://nsarchive.gwu.edu/coldwar/documents/episode-1/kennan.htm Novikov Telegram: • U.S. Foreign Policy is very different than in the pre-war period. • They see the Soviet Union as still encircled by hostile capitalist powers. • Novikov is saying the American's want to run the world • They read what the U.S. is doing in 1946 as very aggressive. • Talks about World domination, military bases, peacetime graft, increase in U.S. involvement in Middle East for oil • Context: Congressional elections coming up in November of 1946 • He talks about voting and how Truman plays to the voters, as well as the differences between the two parties. • Republicans: Right Wing o Vandenberg (R-Mi) • Isolationism to interventionism//support for NATO and US engagement around the world. • Shifts towards multilateralism o Taft (R-OH) • Democrats: Left wing o Wallace (had been VP under FDR until 1940, resigned as secretary of commerce, a rival of Truman's) o Pepper • D-FL • Basis for bipartisan foreign policy • Worth noting that Novikov goes into some detail about these political parties and sees the speeches and votes in congress as important - it is public knowledge and he believes telling of what U.S. policy is. • Secretary Byrnes also runs the United States according to Novikov • Detection of tension within American political point of view. • Origins: FM Molotoff who was at CFM was frustrated with the deadlock and so he asked Novikov to write a report on U.S. policy for the delegation. Conclusion: • These two documents point out very different perspectives • Book: Joseph Rothschild: Return to Diversity • It's aggressive on the part of the United States to overturn the coalitions inherited from WW2 • The governments that ran E. Europe prior to 1949 had significant representation of monarchists, conservative parties and fascists. • From the Soviet Point of View, there was a lot of interest from the United States to purge the Nazis from Germany. • The Soviets do want to spread their regime which they call democratic • They think if you have free elections where the landlords, fascists, etc. don't bribe people then the peasant parties will get too much support • The fact that he's offended shows that the Soviets do plan to spread socialism • They would argue that the democratic forces in the United States - left style new deal - would win.