Chapter 3 Outline
Chapter 3 Outline EDF3110
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This 13 page Class Notes was uploaded by Kate Campbell on Tuesday September 20, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to EDF3110 at University of Florida taught by Alisha Dickerson in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 4 views. For similar materials see Human Growth and Development in Human Development at University of Florida.
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Date Created: 09/20/16
September 13, 2016 CHAPTER 3: PRENATAL DEVELOPMENT, BIRTH, AND THE NEWBORN BABY 1. PRENATAL DEVELOPMENT Ovum is largest cell in human body, measuring 1/175 inch in diameter; the sperm is 1/500 inch A. Conception i. Once every 28 days, ovum is produced from ovaries, and drawn into one the the two fallopian tubes to travel to uterus ii. Corpus luteum=spot on ovary from which the ovum was released; now secretes hormones to prepare lining of the uterus for fertilized ovum iii. If pregnancy does not happen, the corpus luteum shri nks and the uterus’ lining is disposed of during menstruation iv. Male produces roughly 300 million sperm a day in the testes (located in the scrotum) v. In later stages of development, the sperm develops tail to help propel it upstream in the female reproductive tract and into the fallopian tubes. vi. About 300 to 500 sperm make it to the ovum (if present); can wait up to six days for the ovum to come vii. Conception usually takes place during a three -day period after intercourse - either the day of ovulation or the two a fter. B. Period of the Zygote i. Lasts about 2 weeks ii. From fertilization until attachment to the uterine wall iii. First cell duplication- long- takes about 30 hours following conception iv. Cells are steadily added at a quicker pace th v. 4 day- 60 to 70 cells exist, the cells forming a hollow, fluid filled ball called a blastocyst: the inner cells forming an embryonic disk (will become the embryo) and the outer cells called a trophoblast (will become protective covering and provide nourishment to fetus) vi. Implantation 1. Occurs between 7 th and 9 day 2. Blastocyst furrows deep into the uterine lining 3. Amnion is formed, enclosing organism in amniotic fluid that regulates temperature and acts as a protectant from women’s movements. 4. Yolk sac forms for production of blood cells until the liver, spleen, and bone marrow can take over 5. 30% of zygotes do not survive this period 6. Nature thus eliminates MOST prenatal abnormalities vii. The Placenta and Umbilical Cord 1. Another protective membrane known as the chorion had form, surrounding amnion; has hair-like villi (blood vessels) that burry deep into uterine wall 2. Placenta begins to form, permitting food and oxygen to reach the zygote and waste to be taken away by bringing the blood of the mother and zygote close 3. Umbilical cord connects placenta to t he baby, growing anywhere from 1 to 3 feet ; contains one large vein that delivers blood, and two arteries that remove waste 4. Force of blood flow prevents tangling 5. The period of zygote all typically unfolds before mother realizes she is pregnant C. Period of the Embryo i. Spans from end of implantation to the eighth week (so 6 -week period) ii. Last Half of the First Month 1. First week - embryonic disk form three layers of cells: 1) ectoderm -will become nervous system 2) mesoderm - muscles, skeletal system, circulatory sys tem, and internal organs will develop 3) endoderm - becomes digestive system, lungs, urinary tract, and glands 2. Rapidly, the ectoderm folds over to create the neural tube which is the embryo’s equivalent to a spinal cord 3. 3 ½ week marks the swelling at the he ad to form the brain 4. heart begins to pump blood 5. nervous system is still developing 6. muscles, digestive tract, spine, and ribs form 7. ¼ inch long at end of 1 s month 8. millions of cells that are both organized and specialized iii. The Second Month 1. Rapid continued gro wth 2. Nose, eyes, jaw, neck 2 3. Buds turn into legs, arms, fingers, and toes 4. Internal organs become clear a. Growth b. Heart chambers c. Liver and spleen illuminate yolk sac’s need for production of blood cells 5. 7 weeks - neurons rapidly begin forming in neural tube a. form major parts of brain nd 6. end of 2 month: a. embryo is 1-inch-long and 1/7 ounces b. responds to touch c. can move (mother can’t feel yet) D. Period of the Fetus i. The 3 Month 1. Nervous system, organs, and muscles begin organization and connection 2. Change body position arou nd 25 times in an hour period 3. Lungs begin contraction and expansion 4. 12 week- sex can be detected because external genitalia have well developed 5. finger and toes nails, buds for teeth, eyelids 6. heartbeat can be heard with telescope 7. end of 3 month marks co mpletion of 1 s trimester ii. The Second Trimester 1. 17-20 weeks - mom can now feel movements 2. vernix (looks like white cheese) protects skin from chapping from the amniotic fluid a. lanugo (white downy hair) help vernix to stay on skin) 3. end of second trimester - a. most organs are well formed b. majority of brain’s billions of neurons are ready c. glial cells (the support and food for neurons) still increase rapidly throughout the rest of the pregnancy and a while after, while neurons slow down their production pace i. brain wei ghs 10x more at birth than at week 20 d. neurons begin formation of synapses quickly as well e. stimulated and irritated by sounds at 20 weeks f. sight has begun 3 g. cannot survive if born because lungs are too underdeveloped and brain cannot regulate body temperature or breathing iii. The Third Trimester 1. Fetus now has chance of survival 2. Age of viability is around 22 to 26 weeks 3. Brain’s cerebral cortex is grow larger 4. Fetus spends more time awake (11% of time at 28 week and 16% right before birth) 5. 30 to 34 weeks have a rhyth mic cycle of sleep and awake 6. heart rate and motor activity become synchronized a. thus neural networks are obviously developing in brain 7. end of last trimester, personality develops 8. fetal activity thought to parallel temperament 9. greater response to stimuli 10. 23 to 30 weeks - cerebral cortex and brain region connections develop ability to feel pain 11. 28 week - blinks in reaction to close sounds 12. 30 weeks - sounds give rise to heart rate and increase movement 13. possible short term memory 14. 30 to 36 weeks - recognizes various different tones and rhythms 15. heart rate changes based on voice and language speaking 16. in final 3 months a. gained over 5 lbs. b. grown 7 inches c. 8 month- fat layer added to help regulate temp d. receive antibodies from mother e. last weeks - turn upside down, head firs t f. growth slows g. birth is near 2. PRENATAL ENVIROMENTA L INFLUENCES A. Teratogens i. “any environmental agent that causes damage during prenatal period” ii. tera- malformation or monstrosity iii. Amount of harm inflicted is influenced by: 1. Dose a. Larger doses= worse effects 4 2. Heredity a. Some genetic makeups allow some to withstand teratogens better than others 3. Other negative influences a. Multiple teratogens, poor nutrition, no prenatal or medical care can intensify harm invoked 4. Age a. Time during which the baby was exposed prenatally, suc h as sensitive period, could worsen or lessen effects i. Zygote period often feels little to no effects ii. Embryonic period is most sensitive and feels most effects iii. Fetal period, effects are not major iv. Some effects are not physical, and do not always show up imme diately v. Physiological damage often results too because of the environment the physical damage causes 1. Bidirectional influences vi. Prescription and Nonprescription Drugs 1. Thalidomide - when taken by mom 4 -6 weeks following conception: a. Severe deformities to arms, legs and sometimes ears, heart, kidney, and genitals b. 7,000 infants were effected by drug c. IQs were lower 2. Diethylstilbestrol (DES) given to prevent miscarriages a. Daughters of those who took drug showed abnormally high rates of vagina cancer, uterus malformati ons, and infertility b. Daughters’ pregnancies often lead to more premature births, miscarriages, and low birth weights in comparison c. Sons had increased risk of genital abnormalities of testes cancer 3. Accutane a. If taken during 1 st trimester: i. Ear, eye, heart, sk ull, immune system, and brain abnormalities 4. Any drug with molecule small enough to get through placental barrier can enter the baby’s blood stream 5. Aspirin is linked to low birth weight, infant death near time of birth, worse motor development, and lower IQ scores as children 6. Caffeine in high doses can intensify risk for low birth weight 7. Consistent usage of antidepressant meds are linked to premature birth and complications with birth 5 vii. Illegal Drugs 1. Cocaine, heroin, and methadone a. Premature birth b. Low birth w eight c. Physical deformities d. Issues with breathing e. Infant death close to birth f. Nearly 4% pregnant women use g. Born addicted h. Abnormal piercing cries i. Slow motor development j. Possible long term effects viii. Tobacco 1. 14% women pregnant women smoke 2. low birth weight 3. less attentive to sound 4. greater muscle tension 5. smaller attention spans 6. nicotine causes placenta to grow abnormally and increases carbon monoxide 7. passive smoking (second hand smoke) is harmful too ix. Alcohol 1. Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS) a. Slow physical growth b. 3 of pa rticular patter of facial abnormalities c. brain injury and impairment in 3 or more areas of function 2. Partial Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (p -FAS) a. Two of three facial defects b. brain injury and impairment in 3 or more areas of function c. result of less drinking than FA S 3. Alcohol -related Neurodevelopment Disorder (ARND) a. 3 or more mental functions are impaired b. no facial abnormalities c. no impaired physical growth d. result of less drinking than FAS x. Radiation 6 1. Abnormalities found in children who were in the womb during bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki during World War II and nuclear power plant incident in 1968 in Ukraine 2. Miscarriage 3. Underdeveloped brains 4. Physical defects 5. Impaired physical growth 6. Can increase risk of cancer 7. Lower IQ xi. Environmental Pollution 1. Polychlorinated biphe nyls (PBCs) 2. Mercury 3. Lead 4. Dioxins xii. Infectious Disease 1. Viruses a. HIV and AIDs - baby wil be born with it b. Cytomegalovirus and herpes simplex 2 both infect babies 2. Bacterial and Parasitic Diseases a. Toxoplasmosis i. 40% of infected pregnant women transfer this parasite to baby ii. parasite found in many animals (don’t eat undercooked meat) B. Other Maternal Factors i. Nutrition ii. Emotional Stress iii. Rh Factor Incompatibility iv. Maternal Age C. Importance of Prenatal Health Care i. Possible Complications 1. Diabetes – high glucose must be monitored 2. Preeclampsia (toxemia) – high increase in blood pressure ii. 6% women wait until after 1 trimester to seek care (DON’T WAIT) iii. Adolescents, minority, and low -income families are more prone to not receive proper prenatal care 1. Infants 3x as likely to have low b irthweight 2. Babies 5x more likely to die 7 3. Other reasons for not receiving care a. Situational barriers i. Lack of transportation, trouble finding a dr. or getting appointment b. Personal barriers i. Accidental pregnancy, not proud of pregnancy, engage in high -risk beha viors, work demands, family demands 3. CHILDBIRTH A. The Stages of Childbirth i. Dilation and effacement of cervix 1. 12-14 hrs. 1 birth 2. 4-6 hrs. later births ii. Delivery of baby 1. 50 min 1 birth 2. 20 min later births iii. Delivery of Placenta 1. 5-10 min B. The Baby’s Adaption to Labor and Delivery i. Produce stress hormones to help withstand oxygen deprivation 1. Sends lots of blood to heart and brain 2. Also helps aid baby in becoming alert 3. Aids in breathing by absorption of any fluid in lungs and expand bronchial tubes C. Newborn Baby’s Appearance i. Avg, 20 inch and 7.5 lbs ii. Boys slightly heavier and longer iii. Large head, small body iv. Round chunky face v. Big forehead and eyes D. Assessing the Newborn’s Physical Condition: The Apgar Scale i. Apgar Scale used to assess physical condition quickly ii. Given rates at 1 min after birth and 5 min after birth iii. >7 healthy iv. 4-6 needs assistance to establish breathing and other vitals v. <3 serious danger, needs immediate medical attention 8 4. APPROACHES TO CHILDB IRTH A. Natural (Prepared) Childbirth i. Techniques aimed at lessening pain and medical intervention ii. Childbirth made a rewarding experience iii. Classes to prepare iv. Relaxation and breathing techniques v. Labor coach vi. Social support is crucial 1. Lessens number of C -sections B. Home Delivery i. <1% of U.S. women ii. certified nurse-midwives or doctor a ssists iii. don’t do if at risk for complications 5. MEDICAL INTERVENTION S A. Reasons for Medical Intervention i. Anoxia- not enough oxygen going to baby’s brain ii. Breech position- feet or butt would be delivered first (head should be) iii. Umbilical Cord wrapped around neck B. Fetal Monitoring i. Fetal monitors- track baby’s heart rate while mom’s in labor ii. Used > 80% of U.S. births C. Labor and Delivery Medication i. Analgesics- reduce pain, may be given in moderate doses 1. Most common is epidural analgesia - given regionally through cathete r in lower back ii. Anesthetics are stronger and block sensation iii. Both can cause problems like prolonged labor and babies receive lower Apgar Scores D. Cesarean Delivery i. Surgical birth 1. Incision made in abdomen 2. Baby is lifted out of uterus ii. Once you have one, you c ontinue to have one for following births 9 6. PRETERM AND LOW -BIRTH -WEIGHT INFANTS A. Born at 35 or less weeks or weigh < 5.5 lbs are premature B. At risks for numerous issues C. Birth weight is best indicator of survival rate D. 1 in 13 U.S. infants born underweight E. 60% of twin and 90% triples are early and underweight F. Preterm vs. Small-for Date Infants i. Preterm are born multiple weeks before due date ii. Small-for-date are under expected weight for time of birth G. Consequences for Caregiving i. Because of condition at birth, preter m babies are often held and touched less, and receive harsher verbal commands and expectations ii. Preterm are especially susceptible to effects of parenting quality iii. Development largely hinges of child-parent relationship H. Interventions for Preterm Infants i. Isolette- preterm Plexiglas-enclosure 1. Temperature controlled 2. Air filtered 3. May breather with aid of respirator, be fed through stomach feeding tude, or receive meds through intravenous needle ii. Special Infant Stimulation 1. Specifc hamocks to rock premies 2. Waterbeds 3. Soft music, sound of heart beat or mother’s voice 4. Kangaroo skin on skin care iii. Training parents in nfant Caregiving Skills 1. Few sessions of parenting coacking for preterm babies has shown a higher success rate in their development 2. Stressful, low -income househ olds rewuire long term intensive intervention 7. BIRTH COMPLICATIONS, PARENTING, AND RESIL IENCE A. Hawiaii study on 700 infants who had experienced some level of birth complications i. Found likelihood of longterm struggles were higher in those who had faced severe trauma 10 ii. Found that as long as complications are not severe, a healthy home environment can restore child’s development 8. THE NEWBORN BABY’S C APACITIES A. Reflexes i. Reflex = automatic response to a specific stimulus that are innate 1. Newborn’s most organized behav ior 2. Some serve as a survival value a. Rooting and sucking for feeding 3. Some form basis for complex motor skills a. Stepping reflex simulates walking 4. Some help parent child relationship a. Great feeding reflexes for example evoke positive responses from parents 5. Table 3.4 lists all reflexes (p. 108) ii. States 1. 5 states of arousal a. regular b. irregular c. drowsiness d. quiet alertness e. waking activity and crying 2. Sleep a. Regular (non -rapid eye movement) i. Practically motionless ii. Slow and even heartbeat, brain waves, and breathing b. Irregular (rapid eye movement) i. Brain waves resemble awake brain waves ii. Rapid and uneven breathing, brain waves and heartbeat iii. More time spend in REM sleep than adults (50 5 compared to 20%) 3. Crying a. First form of communication i. Need food, comfort, or stimulation b. Fussy p eriods after birth are expected c. Within a few weeks a baby can be identified by its cry d. Response to hunger, temperature change, pain, etc . 11 e. Crying peaks at about 6 weeks and then decline s f. Soothing Crying I nfants: i. Parents with high empathy and child -centered attitudes often respond quicker and more sensitively ii. Lifting baby to shoulder and gently rocking or wal king helps sooth iii. Swaddling g. Abnormal Crying i. Babies with brain damage and those who had birth complications likely to have shrill, piercing , and short length cries ii. Also heard with colic (persistent crying) 1. Cause of colic unknown 2. Typically goes away within 3 to 6 months 4. Sensory Capacities a. Touch i. Helps stimulate early growth ii. Highly sensitive to pain at birth iii. Especially sensitive to touch around mouth iv. Enduring overwhelming levels of p ain can cause impairments in development and health later b. Taste and Smell i. Newborns can distinguish many various tastes ii. Taste previously dislike can be come the preferred taste if given and fulfills hunger iii. Born with particular tastes preferences iv. Born with o dor preferences too 1. Eggs cause frown, banana and chocolate cause frowns 2. Gravitate toward natural breast smell of mother 3. Prefer odor of human milk to formula c. Hearing i. Sensitivity to sound greatly increases over first few months ii. At birth prefer complex sounds iii. Few days old can distinguish tones and rhythmic beat iv. Young infants are drawn to native language than unfamiliar nonspeech sounds v. Easier to learn multiple languages if done so in infancy 12 vi. Ability to perceive sounds not in native language is much higher than adults, which accounts for the easier acquisition of multiple languages vii. Prefer mothers voi ce d. Vision i. Least developed of baby ’s senses ii. Structure s in both eye and brain are not completely formed yet iii. Limited visual acuity ( fineness of discrimination ) 1. At birth, see object as clearly at 20 feet as an adult at 600 feet iv. Still search environment for interesting sights B. Neonatal Behavioral Assessment i. Neonatal Behavioral Assessment Scale (NBAS) 1. evaluates newborn ’s reflexes, changes of state, tone of muscle, and responsiveness to social and physical stimuli , as we ll as other reactions 2. given around world, have found cultural differences in baby temperaments and development 3. “recovery curves ” predict IQ and lack of behavioral and emotional issues ii. Neonatal Intensive Care Unit Network Neurobehavioral Scale (NNNS) 1. Specific for preterm, low birthweight, teratogens , or complication babies that are prone to development or health problems 2. Scores help determ ine necessary interventions and guide for parents on what babies need 9. ADJUSTING TO THE NEW FAMILY A. Nature helps prepare parents for care of baby B. Mother near end of pregnancy starts lactating C. Oxytocin hormone (lets down milk and causes uterine contractions ) also helps bring a calm mood and responsiveness to infant D. Father’s hormone level change too, show increase in prolactin, which is used to stimulate milk production in females , and estrogens; helps provide emotional reaction to infants and provide proper caretaking E. Adoption shows these hormone changes are no t necessary for proper parenting F. If breastfeeding, proper relationship must be formed G. Siblings may react with anger or jealousy 13
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