New User Special Price Expires in

Let's log you in.

Sign in with Facebook


Don't have a StudySoup account? Create one here!


Create a StudySoup account

Be part of our community, it's free to join!

Sign up with Facebook


Create your account
By creating an account you agree to StudySoup's terms and conditions and privacy policy

Already have a StudySoup account? Login here

Unit 2 notes - Complete

by: Sara Notetaker

Unit 2 notes - Complete 40053

Marketplace > Youngstown State University > 40053 > Unit 2 notes Complete
Sara Notetaker
GPA 3.91

Preview These Notes for FREE

Get a free preview of these Notes, just enter your email below.

Unlock Preview
Unlock Preview

Preview these materials now for free

Why put in your email? Get access to more of this material and other relevant free materials for your school

View Preview

About this Document

These notes cover all material on exam 2
Organisms and Ecology (Bio 2)
Dr. Renne and Dr. Walker
Class Notes
Biology, Ecology
25 ?




Popular in Organisms and Ecology (Bio 2)

Popular in Department

This 8 page Class Notes was uploaded by Sara Notetaker on Tuesday September 20, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to 40053 at Youngstown State University taught by Dr. Renne and Dr. Walker in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 4 views.


Reviews for Unit 2 notes - Complete


Report this Material


What is Karma?


Karma is the currency of StudySoup.

You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!

Date Created: 09/20/16
Biology 2602 Notes U NIT 2: C HAPTERS 29 &30 Ancestry o There are some parasitic plants o Chlorophyll cannot be used to distinguish plants Distinctive Features of land plants o All bodies are composed of 3D tissues  Other adaptations to avoid water loss  Dessication Resistance -resistance to losing water o Tissues arise from apical meristems at growing tips o Tissues and organs with specialized functions  Alternation of generations  Sporophyte and Gametophyte stage  Dessication- resistance and/ or dormancy  Specialized structures to generate, protect, and disperse reproductive cells  10 Plant Phyla o 1. Liverworts o 2. Mosses o 3. Hornworts o 4. Lycophytes o 5. Pteridophytes o 6. Cycads o 7. Ginkgos o 8. Conifers o 9. Gntopytes o 10. Angiosperms  1-3 are non-vascular  4-10 vascular  1-5 require water for reproduction  6-10 seed plants  6-9 Gymnosperms  Non-Vascular o Lack developed structures for moving water and nutrients  This constrains body size  Vascular o Has a developed system for moving water and nutrients.  Xylem  Phloem  Bryophytes and Relatives (Groups 1-3) o They share common structural, reproductive and ecological features o NO Vascular tissue  Constrains size  Constrains possible habitat  Flagellated sperm o Distinguishing Bryophyte Features  Gametophytes are the dominant generation  As opposed to a dominant sporophyte generation on all other plants  Sporophytes are dependent on gametophytes  …and they are smaller and short lived, as opposed to independent, large and longer lived sporophytes in other plants  Non-Vascular  Constrains size, causes dependence on water for reproduction, and constrains habitat possibilities.  Lycophytes and Pteridophytes (ferns) o Vascular Plants o Do NOT produce seeds o Rely on water for reproduction o Sporophyte size and vascularization distinguish this group from Bryophyte o Diverged prior to the origin of seeds  Seedless vascular plants  Reproduction via spores limits habitat exploitation  Origin of Leaves o Provides a higher surface area that helps leaves to effectively capture sunlight for use in photosynthesis o Disadvantage is the water loss  Seedless Plants Transformed Earth’s Ecology o Liverworts and mosses produce decay-resistant body tissue  NON-vascular plants were 1 to colonize land  This began process of organic carbon burial o Level of CO2 dropped  Earth dried and cooled  Also enriched the soil. o Accumulation of nutrients  Ecological Effects of Vascular Plants o first appeared 420-429 mya o Converted huge amounts of CO2 in the atmosphere in to organic material that was decay resistant  Fossil Fules o Removed a large amount of CO2 from the atmosphere  Made earth cooler and drier  Non-seed Plants o Require water for gamete transfer o Homosporous- no apparent difference between spores destined to be male/ female  Seed Plants o Heterosporous- distinctly different spores to form male/ female gametophytes o Do NOT require water for gamete transfer 2 o Seeds provide protection & nutrients for developing embryo after fertilization  Overview of Seed Plants o Evolved from seedless plants o Major critical innovations- shared by seed plants  Pollen- allows seed plants to disperse male gametophytes  Ovules- protect and nourish female gametophytes  Seeds – allow plants to reproduce in diverse habitats without a reliance on water  THIS INCLUDES GAMETE TRANSFER  Wood-strengthens plants allowing them to grow tall (and wide) and produce many branches, leaves, and seeds.  Also, large sporophyte= potential for many gametophytes o NOT ALL SEED PLANTS HAVE WOOD  Ecological Advantages of Seeds o Seeds are a key adaptation to reproduction in a land habitat o Able to remain dormant in soil until favorable conditions occur o Adaptations / selection to improve dispersal o Can store considerable amount of food o Sperm can reach egg without having to go through water  Gymnosperms (“Naked Seeds”) o 4 Groups  1. Conifers  2. Ginkgos  3. Cycads  4. Gnetophytes o Reproduce using spores and seeds (like angiosperms) o SEED PLANTS  Seeds protect and provide energy for young sporophytes o “naked seeds” because seeds are not enclosed by a fruit  Mature fruit = mature ovary o Produce cones to reproduce  Wood o Tissue composed of numerous water-conducting cells strengthened by lignin  Allows woody tissue to transport water upward for great distance  Also provides structural support to achieve large size o Vascular Cambium- produces thick layer of wood and thin layer of inner bark (girth growth)  Inner bark used for transporting water solutions of organic compounds  ex sugar o Tracheids- for water transport  Angiosperms o Distinguished by the presence of flowers and endosperm o Flowers are specialized to enhance pollination and seed production 3 o Fruits develop from flowers (specifically the ovary) enclose the seed and foster seed dispersal o Endosperm- is nutritive seed tissue with very high energy content  Modern Angiosperms o Defining features:  Flowers and fruits  Enclosed seeds (seeds in fruit)  Seed endosperm, fruit, and fertilization  Vessel elements in vascular tissue  Flowers- modified leaves o 4 types of organs  1. Sepals  2. Petals  1-2 are called the Perianth  3. Stamens-Produce pollen (male part)  4. Carpels (the pistil)- produce ovules (female part) o Pistil Anatomy  Stigma-receives and recognizes pollen  Only appropriate pollen will be allowed to germinate  Style- pollen tubes grow through this  Ovary- encloses and protects egg-containing Ovules  Pollen tube delivers sperm to ovules  Ovaries develop into fruits o MATURE FRUIT IS A MATURE OVARY o Angiosperm Reproduction  Fertilization occurs after pollination  Male gametophyte extends pollen tube carrying 2 sperm toward the egg  Double fertilization (unique to angiosperms)  1 sperm fertilizes egg to become embryo  1 sperm fuses with 2 polar nuclei to produce 3N endosperm  Early Flowers (modified leaves for reproduction) o 1 appeared 140 mya o Flowers were a critical innovation that lead to extensive angiosperm diversification o Stamen evolution  Early flowers had broad leaf-shaped stamens  Narrowed to form filaments and anthers (clusters or microsporangia producing pollen) o Carpels also developed from leaf-like structures  Folded to protect ovules  Coevolution*** o Process by which two or more species of organism influences each other’s evolutionary pathway  “Reciprocal evolutionary change among interacting species” 4  Explains the diversity of most flowers and many fruits and how planets accomplish effective pollen and seed dispersal o Among plants and animals, we see coevolution in:  1. Plant-herbivore interactions  2. Plant-pollinator interactions  3. Seed dispersal syndrome  Secondary Metabolites (could be remove w no problem) o Synthesis of molecules that are not essential for cell structure and growth   many are for anti-herbivore defense o 3 classes in plants  Terpenes and terpenoids  Phenolics  Alkaloids  Heavy seed species move farther  An estimated 40-70% of all plants are polyploid  Monocots and dicots are named for differences in number of embryonic leaves called cotyledons  Angiosperm Lineages o Amborella Trichopada  Only angiosperm to lack vessels  Monocot and Dicot differences (5) o 1. Number of cotyledons  Monocot- 1 cotyledon  Dicot- 2 cotyledon o 2. Number of flower parts  Monocots- 3s and 6s  Dicots- 4s and 5s o 3. Stem-vascular bundle arrangement  Monocot- scattered  Dicots- rings o 4. Root system  Monocots- fibrous  Dicots- tap root o 5. Leaf Venation  Monocots- parallel  Dicots- branches  Plant Body’s 3 Organs o 1. Stem- Produce leaves and branches and bear reproductive structure o 2. Leaves- Flattened structures often specialized for photosynthesis o 3. Roots- provide anchorage in the soil and foster efficient uptake of water and minerals  Meristematic Regions- sites of cell division  Stem Vascular Tissue o Phloem- transports organic compounds sugars, and certain minerals 5 o Xylem- few living cells; mostly composed of dead cells, transports water and other minerals  Seed-to-Seed Lifetime o Annuals- Plants the die after producing seeds during their first year of life o Biannuals- Plants that do not reproduce the first year, but usually do the following year o Perennials- plants that live for more than 2 years, often producing seed each year after maturity  Leaf Structure and Function o Cuticle-waxy layer predominantly on upper but to some degree on the bottom  Reduces water-loss o Epidermis-small- celled layer adjacent to cuticle  Additional dessication resistance (water loss preventative) o Palisade Mesophyll-Elongated, tightly packed cells  Efficient light capture o Spongy Mesophyll- Loosely packed, often rounder cells  CO2 and O2 (gas) exchange o Veins (vascular tissue)-  Xylem- to move water and minerals  Phloem- to move sugars o Stomates- regulated openings that transfer CO2 and O2  Adaptations to reduce transpirational water loss o Stomatal Movements  Guard cells conserve water  Blue light stimulates guard cell ion uptake, water flows in, cell expands and stomata opens  At night, ions pumped out, cell deflates and stomata close  Other Adaptations to Reduce Transpirational Water Loss o 1. Very thick Cuticles o 2. Sunken Stomata o 3. Epidermal Outgrowths called trichomes o 4. Spines o 5. C4 and CAM Photosynthetic pathways  Drawback of not losing water= bad at gaining CO2  Behavior o Response to stimuli  Environmental and biological o Plant movements  Bending, twisting, or rotating o Sometimes rapid, other slower as they grow and develop  Hormones-signaling molecules that influence development at a site distant production  Auxins o Master plant hormone o Induces vascular tissue to differentiate o Mediates phototropism-bending towards light 6 o Promotes formation of advantageous roots and regulates branching via lateral bud development o Stimulates fruit development  Important Nutrients o Macronutrients- required in amounts of at least 1g/kg of plant dry matter  Nitrogen  Calcium  Potassium  Phosphorus  Magnesium  Deficiency Symptoms- when plants lack essential nutrients they display these o Failure to reproduce o Tissue death o Change in leaf color o Chlorosis- yellowing of leaves Adaptations to Nutrient Acquisition o Carnivory- nitrogen rich insects are captured to nourish in nitrogen- limited environment o Root Nodules- house Rhizobia bacteria that fix atmospheric nitrogen; in return plant give sugars o Parasitism- tapping into xylem and phloem for resources o Mycorrhizae- symbiotic association with fungi, ups the root nutrient uptake  Hadley Cells- warm air rising near the equator and cools as it is moving upward. Cold air sinks and warms as it travels down. Air circulation pattern.  Shape, size and Location of land masses affect biome location  Biome- land areas with similar climatic conditions and characteristic plant and animal forms. o Contains a large degree of convergence in form and function within biomes  Size, shape and location of land mass affects temperature and moisture o Thus, affects biome location as well.  Transgulf Migrants o Birds are a major group that capitalize on seasonal shifts in productivity. 51% of birds that breed in North America winter in South America.  Tropical Rain Forests o Most Diverse Biome on Earth o Very poor soil o “Lungs of the Planet”  Temperate Rain Forests o Cooler temperature, but same amount of rain as Tropical Rain Forests  Temperate Deciduous Forests 7 o Ohio’s Biome o Cold winters, hot and humid summers. 8


Buy Material

Are you sure you want to buy this material for

25 Karma

Buy Material

BOOM! Enjoy Your Free Notes!

We've added these Notes to your profile, click here to view them now.


You're already Subscribed!

Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'

Why people love StudySoup

Jim McGreen Ohio University

"Knowing I can count on the Elite Notetaker in my class allows me to focus on what the professor is saying instead of just scribbling notes the whole time and falling behind."

Kyle Maynard Purdue

"When you're taking detailed notes and trying to help everyone else out in the class, it really helps you learn and understand the I made $280 on my first study guide!"

Steve Martinelli UC Los Angeles

"There's no way I would have passed my Organic Chemistry class this semester without the notes and study guides I got from StudySoup."

Parker Thompson 500 Startups

"It's a great way for students to improve their educational experience and it seemed like a product that everybody wants, so all the people participating are winning."

Become an Elite Notetaker and start selling your notes online!

Refund Policy


All subscriptions to StudySoup are paid in full at the time of subscribing. To change your credit card information or to cancel your subscription, go to "Edit Settings". All credit card information will be available there. If you should decide to cancel your subscription, it will continue to be valid until the next payment period, as all payments for the current period were made in advance. For special circumstances, please email


StudySoup has more than 1 million course-specific study resources to help students study smarter. If you’re having trouble finding what you’re looking for, our customer support team can help you find what you need! Feel free to contact them here:

Recurring Subscriptions: If you have canceled your recurring subscription on the day of renewal and have not downloaded any documents, you may request a refund by submitting an email to

Satisfaction Guarantee: If you’re not satisfied with your subscription, you can contact us for further help. Contact must be made within 3 business days of your subscription purchase and your refund request will be subject for review.

Please Note: Refunds can never be provided more than 30 days after the initial purchase date regardless of your activity on the site.