Crisis is China - Test 2 Notes - 9/20
Crisis is China - Test 2 Notes - 9/20 HIST 1020
Popular in World History II
verified elite notetaker
Popular in History
This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Hayden Notetaker on Tuesday September 20, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to HIST 1020 at Auburn University taught by Dr. Burel in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 4 views. For similar materials see World History II in History at Auburn University.
Reviews for Crisis is China - Test 2 Notes - 9/20
Report this Material
What is Karma?
Karma is the currency of StudySoup.
Date Created: 09/20/16
Crisisin Late ImperialChina- 9/20 Tuesday, September 20, 212:31 PM Crisis in Late Imperial China • China ○ Mandate of Heaven § A new dynasty replacing an old dynasty with the rise and fall of each § ancient Chinese belief and philosophical idea that tiān (heaven) granted emperors the right to rule based on their ability to govern well and fairly. According to this belief, heaven bestows its mandate to a just ruler, the Son of Heaven. ○ From Splendor to Decay § Common people □ Overpopulation - tends to grow faster than food production □ Partible inheritance - farms and property are divided evenly rather than primogeniture □ Female infanticide - killing of female babies because of population crisis □ Banditry - as governments become weaker, they are not able to stop banditry ® Ex: bandits will raid village, then leave the villagers with nothing and they will then become bandits (gov't too small to control it) § For Elites and Government □ Official corruption - □ Civil service examination - very hard to get a job □ Insufficient official positions □ Deeply conservative leadership ® Emperors try to keep things the way they were ® Did not want to accept western examples § Involution: □ Labor intensive farming practices increased in 19th century but land areas decreased □ A decline in additional production per unit of additional labor ® Did not want to accept western examples § Involution: □ Labor intensive farming practices increased in 19th century but land areas decreased □ A decline in additional production per unit of additional labor □ Workeing significantly harder for marginal gains in output to make ends meet □ High taxation and limited capital made other economic choices impossible § Qing Law and International relations □ The Great Qing Law Code ® Provided since 1644 ® Specific punishments for each crimer ® Enforced by traditionally trained scholar-officials □ European & American Objections ® Largely misunderstood by westerners ® All foreigners subject to rule when withing territory ® Appeas system for capital crimes not typically followed in vase of foreigners § Lord Macartney's Mission □ Lord Macartney would not "cow tau" bow to Chinese emperor □ Qing's eventually let him just take a knee just as English tradition ○ Why Opium? § Sell illegal opium to dealers in China § They have access to it, its addictive § British becoe drug smugglers § Commissioner Lin Zexu □ Digs trench and stops opium smuggling by digging trenches and flushing all of that away ○ Crisis § First Opium War (1839-1842) □ British have such an investment in indstrial technology and military tactics, they demolish Chinese § China's Opium Crisis & International Treaties □ Treaty of Nanjing ® Extraterritoriality ◊ Europeans in China are exempted from local laws and rules } They will be sent back to their home countries to be trialed ® Most favored nations clause ® Extraterritoriality ◊ Europeans in China are exempted from local laws and rules } They will be sent back to their home countries to be trialed ® Most favored nations clause ◊ British automatically gain benefits in any additional terms or benefits agreed upon in any future deal between China and any other foreign states § Second Opium War □ Forces further concessions □ "Unequal Treaty System" □ Treaty of Tiajin ® British Diplomatic posts in Peking ® 10 new trade ports ® Unrestricted inland travel for Europeans ® Indemnity payment of 4 mil. Taels of silver § Taiping Rebellion □ 20-30 million deaths □ Qing dynasty vs. Taiping (Heavenly kingdom of Great Peace) ® Hakka Minority ® Hong Xiuquan - taiping leader □ Ends the war ® Ever Victorious Army - European controlled Chinese units that crush the Taiping (military technology) § Other rebellion □ Nian rebellion □ Muslim rebellions § International turmoil and Rebellion ○ Mixed Legacy of the Qing Response to Crisis § Self-strengthening efforts □ How to make Qing dynasty competitive with western powers ® Want to become more industrial rather than agrarian □ Accept western technology □ Retune Confucian philosophy □ Political status quo ® No effort to change basic imperial structure ® Want to keep all political and social elements the □ Accept western technology □ Retune Confucian philosophy □ Political status quo ® No effort to change basic imperial structure ® Want to keep all political and social elements the same □ Changes ® Administrative ◊ Zongli Yamen - founded by prince Gong- dealt with foeign policy (treaties) ® Armies ◊ Acquired western technologies for warfare (modernization) ◊ Had the ability to build their owntechnologies ® Navies ◊ Build/purchase modernized navy ◊ Not successful; destroyed by those keeping China down ® Economic ◊ Gain industrial base (in treaty ports) ◊ Compradores } Wealthy capitalist class in China (middle men) ◊ Chinese Entrepreneurs } Open different industries (ex: textiles, etc.) ◊ Successful ® Education ◊ Send students to Western Universities ◊ Allow for open schools for Western learning in China ◊ Failure: not able to keep up with westerners □ Empress Dowager Cixi ® Very conservative; no political reform; wasteful (build luxuries rather than focus on country growth) ® Mixed record - somewhat stable but not great ruler □ Boxer Rebellion ® Drive all foreigners from China ® Boxers ◊ Society for righteous and harmoniess fist ◊ Target Manchus(founded Qing) ◊ Not supported by Qing's at first □ Boxer Rebellion ® Drive all foreigners from China ® Boxers ◊ Society for righteous and harmoniess fist ◊ Target Manchus(founded Qing) ◊ Not supported by Qing's at first ® Europeans ◊ Boxers kill many western officials ◊ Europeans send in their armies ® Europeans crush Qing's and Boxers □ America's Open Door Policy ® Want to prevent what happened to India happen to China ® Want China to remain a place to trade freely ◊ Don’t want European powers to have controls over China § Disintegration and Loss of control (of large Chinese lands) □ Unable to reform successfully □ Sun Yat-Sen ® Revive Chinese Society ◊ Replace Qing with constitutional government (Chinese republic) ® 3 principles ◊ Minzu - nationalism } Against foreign imperialism } Accept outside immigration ◊ Minquan - creating democracy (constitutional government) ◊ Minsheng - the People's Welfare } Social welfare } Neither capitalism or marxism □ Republic of China - 1912 ® Central control quickly list □ China 1916-1928 ® Governed by Chinese Warlords separately governing China