PR_Notes_Chapter_13.pdf CMA 301_01
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Brandon Green on Tuesday September 20, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to CMA 301_01 at Hood College taught by Prof. Goldenbach in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 17 views. For similar materials see Public Relations in Journalism and Mass Communications at Hood College.
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Date Created: 09/20/16
What is the difference between crafting a message and framing a message? Why is it important to distinguish that? What does it mean to encode a message and decode a message? How does a message’s content impact both actions? Explain how each of the seven C’s of communication are relevant to the third step of the public relations process. Chapter 13 Step Three: Taking Action and Communicating The action strategy primarily involves internal organizational change. Acting Responsively and Responsibly It stands to reason that if something done caused the problem, then something must be done to solve the problem. Coordinating Action and Communication The communication strategy supports the action program: 1. To inform internal and external target publics of the action; Publics 2. To persuade those publics to support and accept the action; Message strategy 3. To instruct public skills needed to translate intention into action; Media Strategy Action strategy necessarily makes up the main thrust of a program but represents the part of the PR iceberg that might not show above the surface. Message content strategy deals with how messages are developed, created and expressed. Message Content Crafting the Message Communication messages are often persuasive in nature, designed to get “receivers” to behave in ways desired by the “sender” Compliancegaining strategies a form of symbolic behavior designed to shape or regulate the behaviors of others. Some common compliancegaining strategies: 1. Sanction Message focuses on the rewards and punishments that the receiver may experience if he engages in the requested behavior. 2. Altruism Message focuses on how the requested behavior will help either the sender or a third party. 3. Argument Message relies on explanations, and they can include either direct request or hinted requests. 4. CircumventionMessage relies on deceit or exaggerations Power and Fear Appeals Three factors affect the impact of fear messages: 1. The seriousness or harmfulness of the subject 2. The likelihood or probability of the feared event 3. The efficacy of the recommended course of action Onesided and twosided arguments Early persuasion research on message characteristics provided guidance still used in public relations today: 1. If receivers oppose your position, present arguments on both sides of the issue 2. If receivers already agree with your position, your message will have greater impact— probably reinforcement—if you present only arguments consistent with the receivers’ views. 3. If receivers are well educated, include both sides of the argument 4. If you use messages containing both sides of the argument, do not leave out relevant arguments on the opposing sides, or receivers who notice the omission will grow suspicious of your presentation 5. If receivers are likely to be exposed to later to persuasive messages countering your position, used twosided message to ‘inoculate’ the audience to build resistance to the later messages. Inoculation theory Framing the Message Framing means putting the message into a context that will facilitate compliance, understanding, or agreement. Without framing practitioners risk losing the already limited attention of their target publics Coorientation and Framing The first principle of framing message content is to know the organization problem and the problem situation intimately. The second is to know the needs, interests, and concerns of the target publics. These help reduce the discrepancy between the communicator’s position and the audience’s attitudes: 1. Use the media most closely identified with the audience’s position 2. Use a communications source that enjoys high credibility for the audience on the topic of communication 3. Play down the differences between the positions of the communicator and those of the audience. 4. Seek identification in vocabulary and anecdote with the audience in an area removed from the issue 5. Establish the communicator’s position as being the majority opinion, defining the majority from the audience itself 6. Bring the audience’s group identification into play when those identifications will help develop a positive response. The converse is also true 7. Modify the message to fit the organization’s need Framing for news media Want to make content newsworthy: Audience impact Proximity Timeliness Prominence Novelty or oddity Conflict Priming for effective framing Priming theory suggests that previously learned information affects how receptive people are to new messages and how they interpret new information Scholar Alex Wang “The priming effect states that by making some issues more salient than others, a prime influences the standards by which a particular issues is judged.” Finally developing strategy for framing the message requires attention to four fundamental facts: 1. The audience consists of people 2. People tend to read, watch, or listen to communications that present points of view with which they are sympathetic or in which they have a personal stake. 3. Media create their separate communities 4. Media have a wide variety of effects of individual and collective knowledge, predisposition, and behavior, not all of which are readily measureable. Encoding and Decoding the Message Encoding is the process of putting messages. Practitioners Decoding is the process of getting meaning out of messages. Publics Semantics is the science of what words mean, is important to encoding and decoding messages. Symbols offers a dramatic and direct means of persuasive communication with large numbers of people over time and distance. Stereotypes you know what this is… black man walks in a store they think he’s stealing Message Delivery Disseminating Messages Elmo Roper’s concentriccircles theory: ideas penetrate to the whole pubic very slowly through a process similar to osmosis: from inside to out 1. Great thinkers 2. Great disciples 3. Great Disseminators 4. Lesser Disseminators 5. Participating Citizens 6. Politically Inert Acceptance comes in five stages: 1. Knowledge 2. Persuasion 3. Decision 4. Implementation 5. Confirmation Crisis Communication common mistakes: 1. Hesitation 2. Obfuscation 3. Retaliation 4. Prevarication or equivocation 5. Pontification 6. Confrontation 7. Litigation The Seven Cs of public relations communication: 1. Credibility Receivers must have confidence in the sender and high regard for the source’s competence 2. Context this must provide participation and playback; it must confirm not contradict 3. Content People select those items of information that promise them the greatest rewards 4. Clarity Message must be in simple terms 5. Continuity and consistencyThe story must be consistent 6. Channels Established channels of communication should be used 7. Capability of the audience This involves factors of availability, habits, reading ability and prior knowledge.
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