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by: Brandon Green

PR_Notes_Chapter_13.pdf CMA 301_01

Brandon Green

GPA 3.27

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About this Document

These are notes for chapter 13
Public Relations
Prof. Goldenbach
Class Notes
step, three
25 ?




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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Brandon Green on Tuesday September 20, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to CMA 301_01 at Hood College taught by Prof. Goldenbach in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 17 views. For similar materials see Public Relations in Journalism and Mass Communications at Hood College.

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Date Created: 09/20/16
What is the difference between crafting a message and framing a message? Why is it important  to distinguish that? What does it mean to encode a message and decode a message? How does a message’s content  impact both actions? Explain how each of the seven C’s of communication are relevant to the third step of the public  relations process. Chapter 13 Step Three: Taking Action and Communicating   The action strategy primarily involves internal organizational change.  Acting Responsively and Responsibly   It stands to reason that if something done caused the problem, then something must be done  to solve the problem. Coordinating Action and Communication The communication strategy supports the action program: 1. To inform internal and external target publics of the action; Publics 2. To persuade those publics to support and accept the action; Message strategy 3. To instruct public skills needed to translate intention into action; Media Strategy  Action strategy necessarily makes up the main thrust of a program but represents the part of  the PR iceberg that might not show above the surface.   Message content strategy deals with how messages are developed, created and expressed.  Message Content  Crafting the Message  Communication messages are often persuasive in nature, designed to get “receivers” to  behave in ways desired by the “sender” Compliance­gaining strategies­ a form of symbolic behavior designed to shape or regulate the  behaviors of others. Some common compliance­gaining strategies: 1. Sanction­ Message focuses on the rewards and punishments that the receiver may  experience if he engages in the requested behavior.  2. Altruism­ Message focuses on how the requested behavior will help either the sender or a third party.  3. Argument­ Message relies on explanations, and they can include either direct request or  hinted requests.  4. Circumvention­Message relies on deceit or exaggerations Power and Fear Appeals Three factors affect the impact of fear messages: 1. The seriousness or harmfulness of the subject 2. The likelihood or probability of the feared event  3. The efficacy of the recommended course of action One­sided and two­sided arguments Early persuasion research on message characteristics provided guidance still used in public  relations today: 1. If receivers oppose your position, present arguments on both sides of the issue 2. If receivers already agree with your position, your message will have greater impact— probably reinforcement—if you present only arguments consistent with the receivers’  views.  3. If receivers are well educated, include both sides of the argument 4. If you use messages containing both sides of the argument, do not leave out relevant  arguments on the opposing sides, or receivers who notice the omission will grow  suspicious of your presentation 5. If receivers are likely to be exposed to later to persuasive messages countering your  position, used two­sided message to ‘inoculate’ the audience to build resistance to the  later messages. Inoculation theory Framing the Message  Framing­ means putting the message into a context that will facilitate compliance,  understanding, or agreement.   Without framing practitioners risk losing the already limited attention of their target publics Coorientation and Framing The first principle of framing message content is to know the organization problem and the  problem situation intimately. The second is to know the needs, interests, and concerns of the target publics. These help reduce the discrepancy between the communicator’s position and the audience’s  attitudes: 1. Use the media most closely identified with the audience’s position 2. Use a communications source that enjoys high credibility for the audience on the topic of  communication 3. Play down the differences between the positions of the communicator and those of the  audience. 4. Seek identification in vocabulary and anecdote with the audience in an area removed  from the issue 5. Establish the communicator’s position as being the majority opinion, defining the  majority from the audience itself 6. Bring the audience’s group identification into play when those identifications will help  develop a positive response. The converse is also true 7. Modify the message to fit the organization’s need Framing for news media Want to make content newsworthy:  Audience impact  Proximity  Timeliness  Prominence  Novelty or oddity  Conflict Priming for effective framing Priming theory suggests that previously learned information affects how receptive people are to  new messages and how they interpret new information Scholar Alex Wang “The priming effect states that by making some issues more salient than  others, a prime influences the standards by which a particular issues is judged.” Finally developing strategy for framing the message requires attention to four fundamental facts: 1. The audience consists of people 2. People tend to read, watch, or listen to communications that present points of view with  which they are sympathetic or in which they have a personal stake.  3. Media create their separate communities  4. Media have a wide variety of effects of individual and collective knowledge,  predisposition, and behavior, not all of which are readily measureable.  Encoding and Decoding the Message Encoding is the process of putting messages. Practitioners   Decoding is the process of getting meaning out of messages. Publics Semantics­ is the science of what words mean, is important to encoding and decoding messages.  Symbols­ offers a dramatic and direct means of persuasive communication with large numbers of people over time and distance.  Stereotypes­ you know what this is… black man walks in a store they think he’s stealing  Message Delivery Disseminating Messages Elmo Roper’s concentric­circles theory: ideas penetrate to the whole pubic very slowly through a process similar to osmosis: from inside to out 1. Great thinkers 2. Great disciples 3. Great Disseminators 4. Lesser Disseminators 5. Participating Citizens 6. Politically Inert Acceptance comes in five stages: 1. Knowledge 2. Persuasion 3. Decision 4. Implementation 5. Confirmation Crisis Communication common mistakes: 1. Hesitation 2. Obfuscation 3. Retaliation 4. Prevarication or equivocation 5. Pontification 6. Confrontation 7. Litigation The Seven Cs of public relations communication: 1. Credibility­ Receivers must have confidence in the sender and high regard for the source’s  competence 2. Context­ this must provide participation and playback; it must confirm not contradict 3. Content­ People select those items of information that promise them the greatest rewards 4. Clarity­ Message must be in simple terms 5. Continuity and consistency­The story must be consistent 6. Channels­ Established channels of communication should be used 7. Capability of the audience­ This involves factors of availability, habits, reading ability and  prior knowledge. 


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