Biology 301, chapter 7 Evolution and adaptation
Biology 301, chapter 7 Evolution and adaptation BIO 301
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This 2 page Class Notes was uploaded by Savannah Notetaker on Tuesday September 20, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to BIO 301 at University of South Carolina taught by Dr. Megan Gamble in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 31 views. For similar materials see Ecology and Evolution in Biology at University of South Carolina.
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Date Created: 09/20/16
Biology 301 Chapter 7 Evolution and Adaptation Survival - Reproduction Speciation- formation of new species Genotype- unique combination of an individual’s genes o DNA RNA Protein o RNA (mRNA, rRNA, tRNA) Gene- a transcribed unit Allele- alternate version of a gene Mitosis- cell division Meiosis- produces haploid gametes that fuse together to form diploid Mutation- alters alleles Polygenic- single trait is affected by many genes o Ex: height, eye color Pleiotrophy- single gene alters many traits Epistasis- expression of one gene controlled by another. Homozygous- dominant or recessive o Ex: AA or aa Heterozygous- has different alleles and has greater genetic variability o Ex: Aa o Codominance- both phenotypes are expressed o Incomplete dominance- mixture of phenotypes Evolution can happen through random process or natural selection o Random processes: mutation and genetic drift Genetic drift- not driven by natural selection. Variation in the relative frequency of different genotypes in a small population. Disappearance of particular genes as individuals die. o Random variation Bottleneck effect- environmental change that greatly reduces the number of individuals/ genetic variability Artificial selection- controlled by humans, selection of traits o Ex: dog breeding Natural selection- selection of traits. Controlled by the environment Fitness- production of descendants over time 3 types of natural selection o Stabilizing selection o Directional selection o Disruptive selection