APK2100C Chapter 9 Outline
APK2100C Chapter 9 Outline APK 2100C
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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Kate Campbell on Tuesday September 20, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to APK 2100C at University of Florida taught by Joslyn Ahlgren in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 38 views. For similar materials see Applied Human Anatomy with Laboratory in Anatomy at University of Florida.
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Date Created: 09/20/16
September 20, 2016 CHAPTER 9 JOINTS (TEXTBOOK P. 209-220) 1. JOINTS A. Joints or articulations are the point where rigid parts if skeleton meet B. Weakest part of skeleton C. Resist torsion and crushing D. Aid movement and support 2. CLASSIFICATION A. Functional Classification based on movement: i. Synarthroses 1. Joints are not movable 2. Found in axial skeleton ii. Amphiarthroses 1. Slightly movable 2. Found in axial skeleton iii. Diarthroses 1. Completely movable 2. Found in limbs B. Structural Classification based on material and joint cavity presences: i. Fibrous ii. Cartilaginous iii. Synovial 3. FIBROUS JOINTS A. Bones connected by fibrous tissue, mostly dense regular CT B. No joint cavity present C. 3 types: i. Sutures 1. “seams” 2. found between skull bones 3. edges of bone here are wavy 4. allow for growth 5. fuse together in middle of adolescence becoming synostoses or “bony junctions ii. Syndesmoses 1. Bones connected solely by ligaments 2. Fibrous tissue in bands longer than in sutures 3. Movement allows is dependent on length of the fibers iii. Gomphoses 1. “peg-in-socket” joint 2. a tooth with its socket 3. connecting ligament is short periodo ntal ligament 4. CARTILAGINOUS JOINTS A. cartilaginous i. No joint cavity ii. Cartilage B. Synchondroses i. Hyaline cartilage ii. “junction of cartilage” iii. immovable C. Symphyses i. Fibrocartilage ii. Hyaline also present in articular cartilages on bony surfaces which reduces friction iii. Resist tension and compression and shock absorption iv. Slightly movable 5. SYNOVIAL JOINTS A. Move most freely B. All diarthroses C. Joint cavity 2 D. General Structures: i. Articular cartilage 1. Absorption so ends of bones don’t get crushed ii. Joint (articular) cavity 1. Unique to thi s type of joint 2. Holds a bit of synovial fluid iii. Articular capsule 1. Encloses joint cavity 2. Outer fibrous layer is dense irregular CT continuous with periosteum layer of joining bones 3. Strengthens to keep bones from being yanked apart 4. Inner synovial membrane is m ade of loose CT and lines the internal joint surfaces not covered by cartilage and makes synovial fluid iv. Synovial fluid 1. Mailing a filtrate from blood 2. Slippery à eases movement at joint 3. Within articular cartilage and in joint cavity 4. Weeping lubrication: a. Pressure from joints squeezes out fluid and goes into articular cartilages and provides nutrients to cells and lubricates free surfaces so bones can move freely v. Reinforcing Ligaments 1. Mostly capsular (thickened parts of fibrous layer of articular capsule) 2. Extracapsular found just outside capsule 3. Intracapsular are found internal to capsule and covered in synovial membrane separating them from joint cavity vi. Nerves and Vessels 1. Rich with sensory nervous fibers in articular capsule a. Some sense pain b. Most monitor extent to how capsule is stretched 2. Rich blood supply a. Most vessels supply synovial membrane; numerous capillary beds make the basis of synovial fluid: blood filtrate 3. Every synovial joint has branch of several nerves and blood vessels that come from varying directions and overlap areas of joint capsule a. Functional redundancy b. While some blood vessels are compressed, the joint is still getting blood from other un compressed vessels c. Damage inflicted to some, others keep joint usuable 3 vii. Articular Disc 1. Only some synovial joints have it 2. Disc composed of fibrocartilage 3. Completely or partially divides joint capsule 4. Found in joints were the two bones coming together have differing shapes , so helps to fit bet ter a. Minimizes damage 5. Permit two different movements at joint a. Ie.: jaw bone viii. Bursae and Tendon Sheaths 1. Contain synovial fluid 2. Sealed bags of lubricant 3. reduce friction 4. Bursa- flattened fibrous sac lined with synovial membrane a. found where muscles, skin, ligaments, t endons, or bones overlie and create friction with each other 5. Tendon s heath- elongated fibrous sac lines with synovial membrane that wraps around t endons that are at risk of friction E. Movements Allowed by Synovial Joints i. Movements of bone at synovial joints due to muscle contraction fall under three categories: gliding, angular movements, and rotation 1. Gliding a. Flat surfaces of neighboring bones glide across each other i. Between carpals and tarsals and fla t articular processes of vertebrae 2. Angular movements a. Flexion- decreases angle between bones, bringing them closer i. Neck or trunk, making a fist b. Extensi on i. Increases angle ii. Straig htening action iii. Opposite of flexion iv. Hyperextension - when joint i s bent back past normal motion range 1. Common with loose ligaments 3. Abduction a. Movement of limb farther from midline b. Movement along fro ntal plane 4 c. For fingers or toes this means spreading them far apart from each other 4. Adduction a. Opposite of abduction b. Move libs closer to midline c. Movement along frontal plane 5. Circumduction a. Movement of limb or finger in cone shape b. Combination of abduction, extension, and adduction 6. Rotation a. Movement of bone around longitudinal axis in turning motion b. Transverse plane movement c. Only form of movement allowed for beginning two cervical vertebrae d. Whole trunk also rotates e. Limbs: i. Medial rotation turns towards median plane ii. Lateral rotation turns opposite 7. Special Mov ements a. Elevation - superiorly lift body part b. Depression - opposite c. Protraction - nonangular movement toward anterior d. Retraction - nonangular movement toward posterior e. Supination - radius rotates lateral ly ending with palms facing the anterior f. Pronation - radius rotates medi ally ending with palms facing the posterior i. Ulna and radius form an X g. Opposition - movement of thumb across the plan prohibiting the touching of your other fingertips h. Inversion - foot’s intert arsal joint moves sole medially i. Eversion - foot’s intertarsal joint moves sole laterally j. Dorsiflexion - movement of superior portion of foot towards shi n i. Correlates to extension of hand k. Plantar flexion - movement of superior portion of foot downwar d or elevation of heel F. Types of Synovial Joints i. Nonaxial- bones move along not parti cular axis ii. Uniaxial- one axial 5 iii. Biaxial- possible movement around two different axials; movement allowed along sagittal and frontal planes iv. Multiaxial- possible movement along three axials and all body planes G. Structural Classification of Synovial Joints (look at Figure 9.8 on page 218) i. Plane ii. Hinge iii. Pivot iv. Condylar v. Saddle vi. Ball-and-socket H. Factors Influencing the Stability of Synovial Joints i. Articular Surfaces 1. Rarely provide stability because most are shallow 2. Shape d etermine what kind of movements are possible at particular joint ii. Ligaments 1. Help keep bones together and in place 2. Prevent too much or undesired movements 3. Location: a. Medial or inferior side - resist excessive abduction b. Lateral and superiorly - resist excessive extension and lateral rotation c. Posterior - resist excessive medial rotation and flexion 4. More ligaments= greater strength 5. Once stretched , stay stretched a. Why a sprained ankle is easy to re-sprain in the future b. Can only stech 6% of typical length before snap ping c. Double-jointed= lo oser ligaments, not more joints iii. Muscle Tone iv. The consistent low level of of contractile force created by a muscle whether or not is is currently creating movement v. Stabilizes by plaving tension on muscle tendons external to joint capsule that span across joints vi. Acts like a ligament by keeping adjoining bones in place vii. Specifically critical in knee, shoulder, and arch of foot joints 6
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