History 102 Week 1 Notes
History 102 Week 1 Notes History 102
University of Louisiana at Lafayette
Popular in World Civilizations II
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Whitney Anderson on Tuesday September 20, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to History 102 at University of Louisiana at Lafayette taught by Mr. Chester in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 5 views.
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Date Created: 09/20/16
History Notes Week 1 The Roman Empire Their Greatness is based on: 1. Engineering (roads) 2. Administrations achievements & laws 3. The Roman army a. Well trained soldiers Roman only have 2 choices, when German invaders intrude Either bulk up their troops or appoint a German as King From ancient times, the Mediterranean area was the most important part of Europe. But this all changed During the Middle Ages, Western Europe gradually became the most dynamic region of Europe. European Preindustrial society: Chief characteristics: Rural life, agriculture as the chief industry Medieval Division of Society: Those who prayed – Priest/Monks Those who fought – Nobles/Knights Those who worked – Commoners Ascribed vs Achieved stats: Major Groups: 1. Privileged – Clergy/Knights 2. Middle Class/Bourgeoisie – rising part of the population 3. Craftsmen & peasants – most numerous group 4. Intelligentsia – tiny social element but growing in importance Groups 2,3 & 4 are those who worked in the division of society Serfs – are not slaves but they are bonded to the land that they work on They don’t work form themselves Have to give a portion of their crops to the lord of the land They get protection from the Lord in return for their crops Can’t leave that land ever Generation after generation become serfs Meaning they can’t move up or marry in society How do people live in preindustrial society? Physical insecurity as normal conditions rather than abnormal state: most people lived in close proximity to the reality of death Why? The greatest killers: Disease – the Black Plague It begins in China (1300s) then travel to Europe (1347) Soldiers spread disease (STDs) War Machinery of war had advanced Drafting males left and right from their homes Starvation Soldiers would live on farmland and take food from the people Great Britain started the industrial revolution in the 1700s Response to Insecurity: In the countryside: Peasants: collective/communalism (togetherness) Ex: In Russia – the mir (farmland); world/peace They would divide the farmland Which is based on how many eaters (people) they had Every 7 years they would do this Property is under the control of the community In the cities: craftsmen: guilds, also, the “moral” economy: Afforded market supervision & consumer protection during hard times Guilds – organization of the craftsmen (small in numbers) More membership more power union Invested interest in production in their organization Maximizing production they control the wages & prices of product set limit number of product reasonable standing of living “Moral” economy markets won’t take advantage of community in a time of distress Supply & Demand: Increase in products: the low the prices Decrease in products: the higher the prices Other patterns of behavior: Social nexus (a system of mutual dependence) Money rules/dominant cash nexus Everyone had a place in the social hierarchy & everyone knew how to act according to it: paternalism & charity Parochialism (localmindedness): Most people lived their lives within narrow geographic boundaries; there was little nationalism; most people’s primary loyalties were to family & community Traditionalism: A situation where ideals, values, ways of living & working were rooted in the past Emphasis on timetested methods made people resistant to change People in preindustrial society were survivaloriented as opposed to future oriented (Today’s society) Gain knowledge through oral sources Sayings Folk songs Local areas Experiences of elders Role of religion: Usually a force for social order & stability Prime function was to promote discipline & orderly behavior of the masses Community level Parish church was the center of local life The pastor was the most important person in some ways National level Religion could be a source of conflict Throughout the Middle Ages, religious bodies controlled education th Changed mainly in the 18 century Government began to show greater interest in education, because the King needed more officials who were educated The result was the rise of state educational institutions Marriage & Family: Preindustrial society = patriarchal society, nuclear & extended families Towns/cities; countryside (rural areas) vs parent/community controlled marriages; dowry Western Central Eastern Europe Nuclear family: 1 or 2 generations Towns/Cities Extended family: multiple generations Dominated the countryside What was marriage like the preindustrial society? Wives were hit when they didn’t act right Submissive role Took care of the household and children Seen as property Turning point th th 18 19 centuries among nobles/aristocrats Increasing recognition of women as individuals with feelings, abilities and rights Middleclass/bourgeois society in the 19 and 20 century: functionless female ideal Betty Friedan (19212006) The Feminine Mystique (1963) Founder of NOW (with Shirley Chisolm & Muriel Fox in 1966) Shirley Chisolm – 1 African American Woman in congress/representative