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History 102 Week 1 Notes

by: Whitney Anderson

History 102 Week 1 Notes History 102

Whitney Anderson
University of Louisiana at Lafayette
GPA 3.0
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Notes cover European Pre-industrial times
World Civilizations II
Mr. Chester
Class Notes
european, religion, hierarchy




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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Whitney Anderson on Tuesday September 20, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to History 102 at University of Louisiana at Lafayette taught by Mr. Chester in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 5 views.

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Date Created: 09/20/16
History Notes Week 1 The Roman Empire  Their Greatness is based on: 1. Engineering (roads) 2. Administrations achievements & laws 3. The Roman army  a. Well trained soldiers Roman only have 2 choices, when German invaders intrude Either bulk up their troops or appoint a German as King   From ancient times, the Mediterranean area was the most important part of Europe. But this all changed During the Middle Ages, Western Europe gradually became the most dynamic region of  Europe. European Pre­industrial society: Chief characteristics:  Rural life, agriculture as the chief industry  Medieval Division of Society: Those who prayed – Priest/Monks Those who fought – Nobles/Knights Those who worked – Commoners  Ascribed vs Achieved stats: Major Groups: 1. Privileged – Clergy/Knights  2. Middle Class/Bourgeoisie – rising part of the population  3. Craftsmen & peasants – most numerous group 4. Intelligentsia – tiny social element but growing in importance  Groups 2,3 & 4 are those who worked in the division of society  Serfs – are not slaves but they are bonded to the land that they work on They don’t work form themselves   Have to give a portion of their crops to the lord of the land They get protection from the Lord in return for their crops Can’t leave that land ever Generation after generation become serfs Meaning they can’t move up or marry in society  How do people live in pre­industrial society? Physical insecurity as normal conditions rather than abnormal state: most people  lived in close proximity to the reality of death   Why?  The greatest killers: Disease – the Black Plague It begins in China (1300s) then travel to Europe (1347) Soldiers spread disease (STDs)   War  Machinery of war had advanced  Drafting males left and right from their homes Starvation  Soldiers would live on farmland and take food from the people Great Britain started the industrial revolution in the 1700s Response to Insecurity: In the countryside: Peasants: collective/communalism (togetherness)  Ex: In Russia – the mir (farmland); world/peace They would divide the farmland  Which is based on how many eaters (people) they had  Every 7 years they would do this Property is under the control of the community  In the cities: craftsmen: guilds, also, the “moral” economy: Afforded market supervision & consumer protection during hard times Guilds – organization of the craftsmen (small in numbers) More membership more power  union  Invested interest in production in their organization  Maximizing production  they control the wages & prices of product  set limit number of product reasonable standing of living  “Moral” economy  markets won’t take advantage of community in a time of  distress  Supply & Demand: Increase in products: the low the prices   Decrease in products: the higher the prices  Other patterns of behavior: Social nexus (a system of mutual dependence) Money rules/dominant  cash nexus  Everyone had a place in the social hierarchy & everyone knew how to act  according to it: paternalism & charity  Parochialism (local­mindedness): Most people lived their lives within narrow geographic boundaries; there was little nationalism; most people’s primary loyalties were to family & community  Traditionalism: A situation where ideals, values, ways of living & working were rooted in the past Emphasis on time­tested methods made people resistant to change  People in pre­industrial society were survival­oriented as opposed to future­ oriented (Today’s society) Gain knowledge through oral sources Sayings Folk songs  Local areas Experiences of elders Role of religion: Usually a force for social order & stability  Prime function was to promote discipline & orderly behavior of the masses Community level Parish church was the center of local life The pastor was the most important person in some ways  National level  Religion could be a source of conflict  Throughout the Middle Ages, religious bodies controlled education th Changed mainly in the 18  century Government began to show greater interest in education, because the  King needed more officials who were educated   The result was the rise of state educational institutions  Marriage & Family: Pre­industrial society = patriarchal society, nuclear & extended families Towns/cities; countryside (rural areas) vs parent/community controlled  marriages; dowry  Western Central  Eastern Europe Nuclear family: 1 or 2 generations  Towns/Cities  Extended family: multiple generations  Dominated the countryside  What was marriage like the pre­industrial society? Wives were hit when they didn’t act right  Submissive role  Took care of the household and children  Seen as property  Turning point  th th 18 ­19  centuries among nobles/aristocrats Increasing recognition of women as individuals with feelings, abilities and rights  Middle­class/bourgeois society in the 19  and 20  century: functionless female ideal  Betty Friedan (1921­2006) The Feminine Mystique (1963) Founder of NOW (with Shirley Chisolm & Muriel Fox in 1966) Shirley Chisolm – 1  African American Woman in  congress/representative 


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