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ASTR 1000-002, Week 3, Notes

by: Jenna Notetaker

ASTR 1000-002, Week 3, Notes ASTR 1000-002

Jenna Notetaker

GPA 4.0

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the dead white guys of astronomy
The Solar System (Lecture)
Charles Danforth
Class Notes
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Jenna Notetaker on Tuesday September 20, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to ASTR 1000-002 at University of Colorado at Boulder taught by Charles Danforth in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 7 views. For similar materials see The Solar System (Lecture) in Astronomy and Physics at University of Colorado at Boulder.

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Date Created: 09/20/16
Astronomy Week 3 Synchronous rotation­ the Moon rotates exactly one complete rotation within each complete orbit Heliocentric­ Sun centered Geocentric­ Earth centered Can only see about 3000 stars with the naked eye China 1400 B.C.­ earliest known records of supernova explosions Babylonians Divided the circle into 360 Measured the year as 365.25 days Planets move around the Sun in a path called the ecliptic Priests not philosophers Sky is mythological, not logical Greek’s were the first to make models of nature Philosophers not priests Mechanistic­ universe follows rules Everything is composed of four elements (air, earth, fire, water) Pythagoras The universe is perfect, crystalline spheres, moving in uniform motion called “the music  of the planets” Plato Student of Socrates Worked out the math behind Pythagoras’ ideas Perfect ideal forms Aristotle Student of Plato Postulated a fifth element (aethir), incorruptible, stuff of heavenly bodies Knowledge of observation There is no proof, only disproof Principles of science Mechanistic­ phenomenon follow natural laws which have repeatable and understandable patterns  Consistent with previous observations Testable and predictive Simple­ in choosing between two competing theories, choose the simpler one Mediocre­ assume we are not observing from a privileged perspective Deductive not inductive Claudius Ptolemy Planets move in epicycles Geocentric Accurately predicted future occurrences Parallax­ small shift in angular position when the place of observation is changed Greeks believed there was not stellular parallax because the stars are too far away that the stellar  parallax is very small Nicholas Copernicus  Polish mathematician Proposed heliocentric model with circular orbits  Explained retrograde but much simpler Tycho Brahe Danish nobleman  Greatest naked eye astronomer Lost his nose in a duel (when he was 20 over a mathematical proof in the dark) Made exquisite measurements of planetary motions and stellar positions  No stellar parallax Discovered “novae” (new stars) which went against the idea of the heavens being perfect Johannes Kepler Mathematician Apprentice of Tycho Astronomy Week 3 Elliptical orbits instead of circular orbits (ellipse­ elongated circle with two foci and a  major and a minor axis) Sun is at one foci Planets move faster close to the Sun but sweep out equal area (eccentricity­ how  elongated the ellipse is) Kepler’s first law­ the orbit of each planet around the Sun is an ellipse with the Sun at one foci Kepler’s second law­ as a planet moves around its orbit, it sweeps out equal areas in equal times Kepler’s third law­ p =a Galileo Galilei Brilliant abrasive Italian scientist and engineer  Observations confirmed the Copernican model Showed that these objects that do not orbit the Earth (Jupiter’s moons) Mountains on the moon, spots on the Sun, and rings on Saturn  Saw phases on Venus with larger phases than crescent Venus  Antikythera Mechanism  Recovered from a Greek shipwreck Predicts when eclipses happen Based on a geocentric model but gives correct answers  Pseudoscience­ “false science” Paradigm­ the general thought patterns thorough time 


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