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BIO 311C Textbook Notes based on Handout 1

by: Sena Sarikaya

BIO 311C Textbook Notes based on Handout 1 Bio 311C

Marketplace > University of Texas at Austin > Biology > Bio 311C > BIO 311C Textbook Notes based on Handout 1
Sena Sarikaya
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These are very brief notes covering review of basic concepts from select sections of Campbell Biology Edition 10 chapter 3 and part of chapter 2. The concept check questions and photo content are n...
Introductory Biology I
Dr. Buskirk
Class Notes
Biology, introductory biology, textbook, textbook notes, biochemistry, Water Properties




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This 7 page Class Notes was uploaded by Sena Sarikaya on Tuesday September 20, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Bio 311C at University of Texas at Austin taught by Dr. Buskirk in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 9 views. For similar materials see Introductory Biology I in Biology at University of Texas at Austin.


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Date Created: 09/20/16
Textbook Notes for Handout 1 Ch. 2 2.3 The Formation & Function of Molecules Depend on Chemical Bonding btwn Atoms A. Covalent Bonds ­covalent bond: sharing of a pair of valence e­ by 2 atoms ­ molecule: 2 or more atoms held together by cov. bond ­ex. molecular formula  H 2 ­Lewis Dot structure H:H ­ex. structural formula H­H ­single bond: 1 pair of shared e­, represented w/ “­” ­double bond: 2 pair of shared e­ ­ex. O=O ­valence: bonding capacity; usually # of unpaired e­ ­ex. for oxygen its 2; hydrogen its 1; nitrogen its 3; carbon its 4 ­phosphorus can have 3 or 5 ­ H 2  and  O 2  are pure elements NOT compounds ­compounds are 2 or more dif. elements ­ex.  H O 2 ­electronegativity: attraction of a particular atom for the e­ of a covalent bond ­nonpolar covalent bond: 2 atoms w/ same electronegativity; e­ shared equally ­polar covalent bond: e­ not shared equally; one atom ore electronegative B. Ionic Bonds ­ions: charged atoms ­cations: (+) ­anions: (­) ­ionic bond: 2 ions of opp. charge bond ­ionic compounds or salts: compounds formed by ionic bonds ­ion can also be a charged molecule ­ex. +¿ ¿ NH 4 ­ionic bonds strong when dry but diss. in H 2 ­arrange in 3D lattice ­not molecules; formula for ionic comp. is a ratio C. Weak Chemical Bonds a. Hydrogen Bonds  ­hydrogen bonds: attraction btwn H & electronegative atom b. Van der Waals Interactions ­vdwi: ever changing regions of (+) and (­) charge enabling atoms & mol.  to stick to one & another ­individually weak but occurring simultaneously ­> powerful D. Molecular Shape & Function ­determines how biological molecules organize & respond to one another w/  specificity ­match btwn structure & funct.   Concept Check 2.3 1. Why does H­C=C­H fail chemically? C needs 8 e­ in valence shell so missing 2 e­ per C 2. What holds atoms together in  MgCl 2 ? Ionic bonds 3. Why would you want to learn the 3D shapes of naturally occurring signal  molecules? Clue to receptor shapes; synthesize molecules that mimic the shapes to treat  individuals who can’t produce their own 2.4 Chemical Reactions Make & Break Chemical Bonds ­chemical reaction: making & breaking of chemical bonds leading ot changes ­chemical equilibrium: the point @ which rxns offset on another exactly ­dynamic equil. b/c rxn still going on but no net effect on conc. of react. / prod.  Ch. 3 3.1 Polar Covalent Bonds in Water Molecules Result in Hydrogen Bonding ­polar molecule: unequal sharing of e­  ­ ex.  H O 2 Concept Check 3.1 1. What is electronegativity; how does it affect interactions between water  molecules? Electronegativity= how much an e­ is attracted to the e­ of a covalent bond.  Electronegativity affects interactions in water molecules by causing a polar  molecule that forms hydrogen bonds.  2. Why is this unlikely?        H     H     / \ O O            \             / H      H Because H is partially (­) so H’s will repel and be attracted to the O’s forming  hydrogen bonds between molecules. 3. What would the effect on properties of the water if O and H had equal  electronegativity? Hydrogen bonds could not form if the molecule was non­polar.  3.2 Four Emergent Properties of Water Contribute to Earth’s Suitability for life A. Cohesion of Water Molecules ­cohesion: H bonds holding the subst. together ­transport of water & dissolved nutrients against gravity of plants ­adhesion: clinging of one substance to another ­surface tension: how difficult it is to break the surface of a liquid ­related to cohesion B. Moderation of Temperature by Water a. Temperature & Heat ­kinetic energy: the energy of motion ­thermal energy: K.E. associated w/ random movement of atoms ­temperature: measurement of nrg of avg K.E. of molecules in matter ­doesn’t depend on volume like thermal nrg ­thermal nrg passes from hotter to cooler object ­heat: thermal nrg in transfer from one body of matter to another ­calorie (cal): unit of heat; the amount of heat it takes to raise the temp. of  1g of water 1C ­kilocalorie (kcal) : 1,000 cal; the amount of heat it takes to raise 1 kg of  water 1C ­joule (J) : energy unit; 1 J = 0.239 cal b. Water’s High Specific Heat ­specific heat: amount of heat absorbed or lost for 1g of substance to  change temp. by  1C ­water’s specific heat is 1cal/g * C ­high compared to other sub. ­ex. ethyl alcohol = 0.6 cal/g * C ­resist in changing temp. when absorbing or losing heat ­b/c of hydrogen bonding ­benefits: ­ @ winter cooling water will warm air ­ @ coastal areas it moderates temp. ­ large body of water can absorb lots of heat w/o warming up a lot ­stabilize ocean temp. ­organisms are made up of a lot of water so better able to resist  own temp. change c. Evaporative Cooling ­liquid to gas = vaporization/ evaporation ­heat of vaporization: how much heat liquid needs to absorb for 1g of it to  go from liq. to gas ­water has high heat of vaporization ­b/c of hydrogen bonds ­effects of high heat of vap. of water… ­ moderate Earth’s climate ­steam burns ­evaporative cooling: the surface of liquid that remains, as liquid  evaporates, cools down ­hottest molecules w/ high K.E. leave as gas so cooler mol. left ­effect of evap. cooling…  ­stabile lake & pond water ­keeps organisms from overheating B.  Floating of Ice on Liquid Water ­water is less dense as solid than liquid ­hydrogen bonding C.  Water: The Solvent of Life ­solution: liquid that is homogenous mix of 2 or more substances ­solvent: the dissolving agent ­solute: substance that is dissolved ­aqueous solution: solute is diss. in water; water = solvent ­water is good solvent b/c hydrogen bonding ­hydration shell: sphere of water mol. around each dissolved ion a. Hydrophilic & Hydrophobic Substances ­hydrophilic: substance w/ affinity for water ­doesn’t always dissolve ­ex. cellulose ­hydrophobic: substance that seems to repel water; non­polar; can’t H  bond b. Solute Concentration in Aqueous Solutions ­molecular mass: sum of masses of all atoms in a mol ­ex.  C 12O 22 11  (sucrose)  ­mol. mass = (12*12)+(22*1)+(11*16)=342 ­mole (mol): 6.02 x 10^23 or Avogadro’s number ­molarity: # of moles of solute per liter of solution D. Possible Evolution of Life on Other Planets ­seasonal streams on mars? ­b/c of  H O rather than water 2 ­drilling into Mars could be next step ­if life­forms are found… evolution gains new perspective Concept Check 3.2 1. Describe how properties of water affect upward movement of water in trees. Cohesion of water molecules cause water to stick to itself and adhesion of  water causes water to slowly crawl up the interior side of the tree 2. Explain “It’s not the heat; it’s the humidity.” Humidity has water and water can absorb heat 3. How can freezing water crack boulders? Solid water is denser b/c hydrogen bonds cause water molecules to spread out  4. What is the benefit of water striders’ hydrophobic substance coated legs?  What if the substance was hydrophilic? The substance allows the insect to walk on surface w/ water molecules b/c the  non­polar substance repels water; the insect would not be able to walk b/c the  substance would interact w/ water and pull the legs and the insect in water 5. Concentration of ghrelin is 1.3 x 10^­10M. How many molecules of ghrelin  are in 1 L of blood? 1.3 x 10^­10  3.3 Acidic & Basic Conditions Affect Living Organisms ­hydrogen ion (H+): single proton w/ +1 charge ­hydroxide ion (OH­): water molecule w/ lost proton; has charge of ­1 H O ­hydronium ion ( 3 +): water molecule w/ proton bound A. Acids & Bases ­acid: substance that increase H ion conc. of a sol. ­ex. HCl ­base: substance that reduces H ion conc. of sol. ­ex. NaOH B. The pH Scale ­pH: negative log (base 10) of H ion conc. ­pH = ­log[H+] C. Buffers ­buffers: substance that minimizes/ resists changes in H+ and OH­ concent. in sol. D. Acidification: A Threat to Water Quality ­ocean acidification: when carbon dioxide dissolves in seawater & reacts w/ water to make carbonic acid; pH is lowered in ocean


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