BIOL 102 Lectures Notes Chapter 26 (Phylogeny and the Tree of Life)
BIOL 102 Lectures Notes Chapter 26 (Phylogeny and the Tree of Life) BIO 102
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This 1 page Class Notes was uploaded by Zach Notetaker on Tuesday September 20, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to BIO 102 at University of South Carolina taught by Mihaly Czako in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 14 views.
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Date Created: 09/20/16
BIOL 102 Lecture Notes 9/13/16 Ch. 26 Phylogeny and the Tree of Life Taxonomy: scientific discipline that classifies and names organisms Systematics: classifies organisms and determines evolutionary relationships Phylogeny: evolutionary history of species or group of related species o Phylogenetic trees show patterns of descent, NOT phenotypic similarity o Phylogenetic trees don’t indicate WHEN a species evolved or how much change occurred in lineage o NOT assumed that taxon evolved from taxon next to it Homoplasies (a homoplasy): analogous structrues or molecular sequences that evolved independently Cladistics: groups organisms by common descent o Clade: group of species that includes ancestral species and all its descendants Monophyletic: a valid clade that consists of the ancestor species and all of its descendants Paraphyletic: an invalid clade consisting of an ancestral species and some, but NOT ALL, of the descendants Polyphyletic: an invalid clade including distantly related species but does NOT include their most recent common ancestor Shared ancestral character: character that originated in an ancestor of the taxon Shared derived character: evolutionary novelty unique to a particular clade o character can be both ancestral and derived, depending on context Molecular clock: uses constant rates of evolution in some genes to estimate the absolute time of evolutionary change o calibrated against branches whose dates are known from fossil record o individual genes vary in how clocklike they are Domains: Bacteria, Archaea, Eukarya Kingdoms: Protista, Plantae, Fungi, Monera (prokaryotes), Animalia Horizontal Gene Transfer: movement of genes from one genome to another o tree of life suggests that eukaryotes and archaea more closely related than bacteria o tree of life based largely on rRNA genes; however, some other genes reveal different relationships o key role in evolution of prokaryotes and eukaryotes
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