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BIOL 102 Lecture Notes Ch. 27 (Bacteria and Archaea)

by: Zach Notetaker

BIOL 102 Lecture Notes Ch. 27 (Bacteria and Archaea) BIO 102

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These notes cover the information presented during lecture on Chapter 27 (Bacteria and Archaea)
General Biology
Mihaly Czako
Class Notes
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Zach Notetaker on Tuesday September 20, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to BIO 102 at University of South Carolina taught by Mihaly Czako in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 17 views.


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Date Created: 09/20/16
BIOL 102 Lectures Notes 9/13/16 Ch. 27 Bacteria and Archaea  Prokaryotes found in every possible habitat…  Ex) Utah’s Great Salt Lake pink color comes from living prokaryotes o Thrive almost everywhere o Mostly microscopic o LOTS OF THEM o Divided into two domains: bacteria and archaea  Earth’s early organisms were likely prokaryotes o unicellular, but some form special colonies  o variety of shapes  o common shapes: spheres (coccus/cocci), rods (bacillus, bacilli), and spirals  Cell Surface Structures:  o Cell walls  maintains cell shape, protects cell, prevents bursting in hypotonic environment o Eukaryote cell walls made of cellulose or chitin o Bacterial cell walls contain peptidoglycan: network of sugar polymers cross­linked by  polypeptides  o Scientists use gram stain to classify bacteria by cell wall composition  Gram­positive: bacteria w/ simpler walls and a large amount of peptidoglycan  Gram­negative: bacteria w/ less peptidoglycan and an outer membrane that can  be toxic to humans o Archaea contain polysaccharides and proteins BUT lack peptidoglycan; stain mostly  Gram­negative (BUT staining doesn’t correlate w/ taxonomic subdivisions)  Antibiotics target peptidoglycan and damage bacterial cell walls  o Gram­negative bacteria more likely to be antibiotic resistant o Polysaccharide or protein layer called capsule covers many prokaryotes   Many prokaryotes form metabolically inactive endospores, can remain viable in harsh  conditions for centuries  Some prokaryotes have fimbriae  allow them to stick to their substrate or other individuals in a colony o Pili/pilus (sex pili) longer than fimbrae and allow prokaryotes to exchange DNA  Many bacteria exhibit taxis  ability to move toward or away from stimulus  o Chemotaxis  movement toward or away from chemical stimulus o Most propel themselves by flagella scattered about surface or concentrated at one or both  ends   Flagella of bacteria, archaea, and eukaryotes composed of different proteins  and likely evolved independently  Internal Organization and DNA in Prokaryotic cells: o usually lack complex compartmentalization o specialized membranes that perform metabolic functions  usually infoldings in plasma membrane  o less DNA than eukaryotic genome o mostly circular chromosomes  not surrounded by membrane, located in nucleoid region o some species have smaller rings of DNA called plasmids  Reproduction: o prokaryotes reproduce quickly  binary fission (can divide every 1­3 hours) o Key features:  small, binary fission, SHORT generation times o Considerable genetic variation:  3 factors:  Recombination:  combining of DNA from 2 sources, contributes to diversity  DNA from different individuals brought together by transformation,  transduction, and conjugation  movement of genes among individuals from different species   horizontal gene transfer o Transformation: prokaryotic cell can take up an incorporate  foreign DNA from surrounding environment  o Transduction: movement of genes between bacteria by  bacteriophages (viruses that infect bacteria) o Conjugation and Plasmids:  process where genetic material is transferred between  prokaryotic cells (equivalent to mating or sexual  reproduction  in bacteria, DNA transfer is one way  donor cell attached to recipient by pilus, pulls it closer, and  transfers DNA   piece of DNA called F factor is required for the production of pili o R Plasmids and Antibiotic Resistance:  R plasmids: carry genes for antibiotic resistance   antibiotics kill sensitive bacteria, but NOT bacteria w/  specific R plasmids  Thru natural selection, fraction of bacteria w/ genes for  resistance increases in population exposed to antibiotics   antibiotic resistant strains are becoming more common     Metabolic diversity of prokaryotes: o photoautotrophs  energy from light o chemoautotrophs  energy from inorganic chemicals  o photoheterotroph  energy from light but needs organic compounds to live o chemoheterotroph  energy from organic compounds      Oxygen in Metabolism: o Obligate aerobes require Oxygen for cellular respiration o Obligate anaerobes poisoned by O2 and use fermentation or anaerobic respiration o Facultative anaerobes can survive W/OUT Oxygen   Nitrogen fixation: convert atmospheric nitrogen (N2) to ammonia (NH3) o nitrogen essential for production of amino acids and nucleic acids   Bacteria  o (subgroup  Alpha Proteobacteria)  Rhizobium  forms root nodules in legumes and fixes atmospheric N2  Agrobacterium  produces tumors in plants and is used in genetic engineering  o (subgroup  Gamma Proteobacteria)  Escherichia coli resides in the intestines of mammals and isn’t normally  pathogenic  Extremophiles: archaea that live in extreme environments  o Extreme halophiles: live in highly saline environments o Extreme thermophiles: thrive in very hot environments   Methanogens: live in swamps and marshes & produce methane as waste product  o strict anaerobes & are poisoned by Oxygen gas  Symbiosis: two species live close together (larger host and smaller symbiont)  Mutualism: both symbiotic organisms benefit  Commensalism: one organism benefits while neither harming nor helping the other in any major way  Parasitism: organism called parasite harms BUT doesn’t kill host o Parasites that cause disease are called pathogens  Exotoxins: secreted by pathogenic prokaryotes and causes disease even if prokaryotes that  produce them are not present  Endotoxins: released only when bacteria die and their cell walls break down (outer membrane of Gram­negative bacteria)  Bioremediation: use of organisms to remove pollutants from environment o bacteria can be engineered to produce vitamins, antibiotics, and hormones 


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