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Week 1-2 Notes

by: Julia Murphy

Week 1-2 Notes 370

Julia Murphy
GPA 3.3
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About this Document

These notes cover the first 2 weeks of Personality. Enjoy! I highlighted ideas that will be on the Exam.
Professor Bickford
Class Notes
Psychology, personality, Sigmund Freud, Freud, Ego, Superego




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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Julia Murphy on Tuesday September 20, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to 370 at University of Massachusetts taught by Professor Bickford in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 5 views. For similar materials see Personality in Psychology (PSYC) at University of Massachusetts.

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Date Created: 09/20/16
What  is  Personality?   th Tuesday,  September  6  –  September  15     Description,  Dynamics,  Development       Description   What  do  people  "show"?   What  are  the  fundamental  parts  of  personality?   Enduring  characteristics  of  the  person   Trans  situational  behavioral  consistency   Individual  differences       Dynamics   What  makes  people  "go?"   What  motivates  behavior?   How  much  are  you  in  conscious  control?       Development   What  makes  people  "grow"?   Where  does  personality  come  from?           Personality  is  the  set  of  psychological  traits/mechanissm  that  are  organized  and  relatively  enduring  and   that  influence  his  or  her  interactions  with  and  adaptations  to  the  environment       A  Set  of  psychological  traits…   Characteristic  ways  in  which  people  differ  from  each  other  or  are  similar   •   How  many?   •   What  are  their  origins   •   What  are  their  correlates  and  consequences?   And  mechanisms…   •   Processes  in  addition  to  content/structure   Within  the  individual…   •   Transcends  situations   And  that  influence…   His/her  interactions  with   Person  x  situation  interaction   Perceptions     • People  percieve  situations  diff   Selections   •   People  choose  their  situations   Evocations   •   People  evoke  reactions  in  others   Manipulations   •   People  intentionally  influence  others   Different  people  in  the  same  situation/stimulus  can  perceive  them  differently   Adaptations  to…   •   Central  feature  of  personality   -­‐  responding  in  functionalm  adaptive  ways   The  environment   •   Physical  and  social  environmet  present  adaptive  challenges   •   Personality  helps  determine  how  people  experience  their  environments       People  shape  what  they  percieve  the  way  their  reality  is       Levels  of  Analysis   Henry  Murray  "Every  person  is  in  certain  respects  a.  like  other  people.  B.  like  some  other  people  and  c.   like  no  other  people       A.   Human  nature  level:  universals  among  humans   B.   Group  difference  level  :  morning  people,  risk  takers,  introverts   C.   Individual  uniqueness  level:  ways  in  which  any  given  person  is  like  no  other       Talkativeness,  extroverts,  passive,  aggressive,  gender,  cultu re  aggressiveness  or  peacefulness  age  group   differences,  impulsiveness,  quirkiness       Idiographic  level  of  analysis:  comes  out  of  a  clinical/medical  condition   •   Understanding  total  person   o   Clinical  approach,  holistically.  What  has  influenced  them?  What  is  the   totallity  of  this  person   so  I  can  help  this  person  function  better?   o   Grand  theories   •   Comprehensive   •   Heuristic  value   •   Not  very  testable  or  parsimonious  (not  the  simplest  explanation,  so  broad  it  gives  little   to  no  way  to  falsify  them)   •   Intuititive,  may  give  freudian  theory   o   Provide  insight,     •   Nomothetic   o   Understanding  indiviudal/group  differences   o   Most  contemporary  research   •   More  testable  and  parsimonious   o   Doesn’t  give  intiutive  value,  more  of  a  puzzle  pieces  approach  without  a  whole  person   perspective       Domains  of  understanding  personality:  framework         Individual  differences       Biological   •   People  as  organisms       Cognitive/Experiential   •   Thoughts  and  subjective  experiences       Intrapsychic   •   Internal,  often  unconscious,  mental  processes       Social/cultural   •   Considering  broader  context       Adjustment   •   What  makes  people  function  well?  Adaptive  utility?       Sometimes  I  say  im  my  own  worst  enemy   -­‐-­‐  for  example,  I  might  plan  to  spend  the  weekend  cattching   up  on  my  studying,  but  when  the  wekend  actually  comes  I  spend  it  watching  netflix  and  checking  social   media  apps       I  know  I  have  to  get  up  early  but  I  stay  up  late  on  netflix  anyways       Someimes  I  know  im  going  to  regret  what  im  about  to  do  or  say  but  I  do  it  anyways       Sometimes  when  I  have  to  face  an  unpleasant  reality  such  as  thinking  about  how  I  will  get  a  job  after   graduation,  I  just  put  the  issue  out  of  my  mind  and  think  about  something  else       Sometimes  I  or  another  person  will  strongly  overreac  to  a  minor  conflict  or  disagreemnet       Sometimes  ina    convo  I  will  find   myself  saying  stuff  I  meant  to  say  which  pops  out,  you  don’t  kno  w   where  it  came  from.       Freuds  basic  ideas   •   People  are  fundamentally  animals   •   We  came  from  animals  that  are  ruled  by  biological  instincts   o   Retain  an  animalistic  nature   o   Sexual  and  aggressive  impulses   o   Selfish  and  irrational   o   Not  consciously  accessible   o   Basic  motivation  underlying  all  behavior   •   Society  restricts  the  expression  of  these  urges   o   Inner  conflict   o   This  conflict  produces  anxiety  that  must  be  managed   o   Failure  to  manage  this  anxiety  well  produ ces  personality  problems   o   Must  satisfy  urges  in  socially  acceptable  ways       Preview  of  Freud's  Theory   Individual  Differences   •   Individual  differences   o   Ego  defenses,  instinctual  objects   •   Adjustment   o   Capacity  for  love  and  work   •   Cognitive  processes   o   Much  thought  is  hi dden,  even  from  the  thinker   •   Biological  inflences   o   Biological  drives  at  root  of  personality   •   Society   o   Judges  unacceptable  impulses   •   Development   o   First  five  years  of  life       Free  will  is  an  illusion  according  to  freud       The  Unconscious   One  of  Freud's  most   important  contributions   •   Reason  does  not  rule  behavior   •   Often  not  aware  of  source  of  behaviors  or  emotions   •   Much  behavior  never  enters  conscious  awareness  at  all   Conscious   •   Present  awareness   •   Thoughts,  experiences,  memories,  goals   •   Functions  in  realistic  ways,  w e  identify  with  our  conscious  mind,  its  our  sense  of  self   Preconscious   •   Readily  made  aware   •   Not  aware  of  right  now,  but  could  easily  recall   •   Ex.  Your  mother's  maiden  name   •   Content  flows  easily  between  the  preconscious  and  conscious   Unconscious   •   Not  readily  made  aware   •   Anxiety  provoking   •   Doesn’t  have  the  energy  to  be  aware  of   •   Upsetting  realities  the  conscious  mind  can't  deal  with   •   What  the  conscious  mind  throws  away  because  the  conscious  mind  cant  manage  it  in  an  effective   way       We  are  often  aware   of  our  overt  behaviors  but  we  aren't  aware  of  why  we  have  them       Manifestations  of  Unconscious  Motivation   Physical  symptoms   •   Conversion  hysteria   o   Glove  anesthesia:  people  showed  up  saying  they  lost  sensation  in  their  hand,  a  part  of  the   hand  that  would  be  covered  by  the  glove.   •   Interesting  because  neurologically  NOT  possible.  It  would  be  from  one  side  down   forearm  and  a  few  fingers…  how  hand  is  wired   •   Psychosis   o   Unconscious  unchecked   o   Lose  touch  with  reality,  raw  unconscious  mental  content     •   Dreams   o   Manifest  and  la tent  content,  disguised   o   Manifested  content  is  the  actual  storyline  of  the  dream   o   Latent  meaning  is  the  unconscious  mental  content   o   Dream  analysis   o   Unconsious  mental  content  threatens  to  burst  in  sleep   o   Very  anxiety  provoking   •   If  you  became  aware  of  it,  you  would  wake  up   •   Psychopathology  of  everyday  life   o   Parapraxes  (Freudian  slips)   •   Errors  in  speech,  memory,  action  ON  EXAM   §   Maybe  you  want  your  relationship  to  end  unconsciously  so  when  your  boyfriend   gives  you  flowers  you  let  them  die,  like  you  unconsciously  want  your   relationship  to  because  he's  not  the  one   o   Humor   •   If  you  cant  express  it  directly,  you  can  express  it  through  jokes   §   Sarcasm,  dirty  jokes   o   Projective  tests   •   Ambiguous  stimulus  (inkblot)   •   Most  common:  anim als  and  insects            


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