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Anth 1010 wk3 notes

by: Justin Larremore

Anth 1010 wk3 notes Anth 1010

Justin Larremore
GPA 3.5

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About this Document

These notes cover lectures over primate studies.
Intro to Anthropology
Jamie Kathleen Johnson
Class Notes
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Justin Larremore on Tuesday September 20, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Anth 1010 at University of North Texas taught by Jamie Kathleen Johnson in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 5 views. For similar materials see Intro to Anthropology in Anthropology at University of North Texas.

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Date Created: 09/20/16
Anth 1010 week 3 notes Primate Ancestry Anthropological Explanations for Human origins and development Ancestral Commons Modern­day Humans, gorillas and Chimps all share a common ancestor Humans did NOT evolve from apes All animals are equally evolved in different ways under unique environmental Circumstances Considering intelligence, strength, or environmental­altering ability as evolutionary criterion is Anthropocentric Procreation is also poor evidence for evolutionary excellance Why would Anthropologists study primates? Primates act as comparative foils to humans  By studying primates, one can get a understanding of what makes humans so special and different from animals Chimps are the closet relatives to humans, share 96% DNA Adaptive Radiation and Prosimians Adaptive Radiation­ diversification of a group of organisms into physical forms suited to a particular environmental niche Prosimians are considered most ancient or oldest primates 2 groups of Prosimians Strepsirhini­ “wet nose”, lemurs, lorises Haplorhini­ “dry nose”, tarsiers Prosimian habitats Madagascar, Africa, South and Southeastern Asia, Sumatra Characteristics Arboreal dwellers (live in trees), some nocturnal and some diurnal Motor skills: grasping hands and feet, no color vision, large eyes for night vision, keen sense of smell and acute hearing New World Monkeys­ Platyrrhines Only found in central and south America Characteristics Arboreal dwelling, mostly diurnal, color vision some, stereoscopic vision Motor skills: grasping hands and feet with great manual dexterity Some species brachiate with help of prehensile tails (grasping tails) Most understudied of all primates b/c of difficulty of access Old World Monkeys­ Catarrhines Tropical Africa, Asia, Japan  Characteristics Arboreal and semi­terrestial dwelling, grasping hands and feet with fully opposable thumbs, acute eyesight with color, stereoscopic, and accurate depth perception Advanced hand­eye coordination Reduced sense of smell compared to other primates Varying degrees of sexual dimorphism Primate Social Organization Primates have large brain to body ratios compared to other mammals but it is cognitive ability and development of cerebral cortex that affects behaviors All primates live in social groups Gorillas­ 1 male and several females Chimps­ some males and some females Gibbons­ monogamous pairs C. and S. American monkeys­ 1 female and 2 males Core of primate societies­ mother and offspring relationships, adoption common Dominance hierarchies: observed ranking system serves to limit in­fighting, provide or limit access to food and/or mates leadership is observed, but rank is context­specific and fluid Reconciliation Mutual grooming, holding hands, hugging, etc. Helps maintain group solidarity Human/Primate Comparison Similarities General Anatomy: Brain structure, large brain to body ratio Genetics and biochemistry Grasping and dexterity Opposable thumbs, 5 fingers, nails not claws Stereoscopic vision, some color Social Behavior: Parental investment and low number of offspring Transmission of information, parent to child Play as a learning tool Communication and learning Non­human primates do not have language though Ability to learn from experience, adapt, and change Tool­use  Some hunting among chimpanzees Differences Fully bipedal Loss of opposable toe Significant anatomical changes in relation to bipedalism Cranial and Post­Cranial distinctions Social Behaviors: Life­long parent/offspring and sibling bonds Mating­ extremely complex mating practices and systems Complex cooperation and sharing Food production and distribution Elder and infant protection Culture­ only in Humans Abstract and symbolic thinking Language Worldviews Complex, integrated social structure Tool manufacturing and technology


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